Atrial fibrillation ablation in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
The Journal of heart valve disease (Impact Factor: 0.75). 05/2012; 21(3):350-7.
Source: PubMed


Current guidelines suggest that the use of a mechanical prosthesis is favored when patients are already receiving long-term anticoagulation for conditions such as atrial fibrillation (AF). Surgical AF ablation can restore normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and obviate the need for anticoagulation. The study aim was to determine the impact of concomitant AF ablation in patients with AF undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) on the restoration of NSR and subsequent requirement for anticoagulation.
Between April 2004 and December 2009, a total of 124 patients (mean age 74 +/- 12 years) with pre-existing AF underwent AVR with or without coronary artery bypass grafting. The documented preoperative rhythm was long-standing persistent AF in 39 patients (32%), persistent AF in five (4%), and paroxysmal AF in 80 (65%). Eighty patients (65%) had concomitant surgical AF ablation. In the ablation group, bilateral pulmonary vein isolation was performed in 55 cases (69%), left atrial-maze in 15 (19%), and Cox-maze in 10 (13%). A left atrial appendage closure was performed in 70 patients (88%). Sinus rhythm, in addition to anti-arrhythmic and warfarin use, were assessed between three and 15 months after surgery. Postoperatively, 13 patients died and 18 were lost to follow up during the three- to 15-month window; consequently, 71 patients were available for analysis in the ablation group, and 22 in the non-ablation group.
In-hospital mortality was 4% (the Ambler score predicted a median (IQR) of 6 (4-9)%). Freedom from AF when not receiving anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) occurred in 58 patients (82%) in the ablation group, compared to eight (36%) in the non-ablation group (p < 0.001). Fifty patients (70%) were free from warfarin in the ablation group, compared to six (27%) in the non-ablation group (p < 0.001). No differences were identified in freedom from AF between the surgical AF lesion sets. AF ablation, younger age, and paroxysmal AF were independently associated with freedom from AF when not receiving AADs.
Surgical AF ablation is associated with an improved restoration of NSR in patients with AF requiring AVR. The need for anticoagulation is reduced in the majority of patients. A bioprosthetic valve may be an acceptable option for a patient with AF who requires AVR.

Download full-text


Available from: Jane Kruse, Aug 14, 2014
1 Follower
30 Reads
  • Source
    • "Electrophysiological studies revealed that approximately 90% of ectopic foci originate from the PVs in patients with paroxysmal AF. Therefore, surgical PVI concomitant with non-mitral valve surgery may be an effective option for paroxysmal AF, though information regarding its efficacy and limitations is limited [8]. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether left atrial (LA) size, an indicator of atrial remodelling, adds prognostic information after surgical PVI for paroxysmal AF related to non-mitral valve disease. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Left atrial (LA) dimension can predict atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter-based or surgical ablation. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) may be a surgical option during aortic valve replacement (AVR) and/or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), though consensus regarding patient selection and late outcome is lacking. We studied 160 patients (mean age 70 ± 9 years) with paroxysmal AF who underwent radiofrequency-based PVI during AVR and/or CABG, and were followed up postoperatively for at least 6 months. Mean preoperative LA dimension was 44 ± 7 mm. Serial echocardiography was performed to evaluate left ventricular (LV) and LA dimensions, E/e', estimated systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and degree of valvular regurgitation. Follow-up was completed with a mean duration of 47 ± 25 months. At the latest follow-up, 133 patients (83%) remained in sinus rhythm. Preoperative LA dimension was independently associated with increased risk of AF recurrence at 6 months after surgery [adjusted odds ratio 1.3 per 1-mm increase in LA dimension, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6, P < 0.001]. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated an optimal cut-off value for preoperative LA dimension of 45 mm to predict sinus rhythm restoration (98% for <45 mm vs 55% for ≥45 mm, P < 0.001). Patients with LA dimension ≥45 mm had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate (62 ± 7 vs 82 ± 7%, P = 0.025) and freedom from adverse events defined as cerebral infarction/haemorrhage, admission for heart failure, catheter ablation and permanent pacemaker implantation (58 ± 7 vs 91 ± 4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative LA dimension ≥45 mm was independently associated with adverse events (adjusted hazards ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.1, P = 0.019). Serial echocardiography demonstrated improvement in LV systolic function irrespective of LA dimension, whereas patients with LA dimension ≥45 mm showed less improvement in LA dimension and systolic PA pressure (interaction effect P < 0.001) and persistent higher E/e' (group effect P < 0.001), along with aggravated tricuspid regurgitation. In patients with paroxysmal AF related to aortic valve disease and/or coronary artery disease, a dilated left atrium (≥45 mm) was associated with inferior AF- and event-free survival after PVI, accompanied by persistent abnormalities in cardiac and haemodynamic function. These findings may assist patient selection for PVI during AVR and/or CABG. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu532 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 03/2014; 129(23). DOI:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000029 · 14.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest cardiac arrhythmia, becoming increasingly prevalent as the population ages. There is conflicting information around whether AF is associated with adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) from the few studies that have investigated this. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing AVR with their history of AF. Isolated AVR patients at Auckland City Hospital 2005-2012 were divided into those with and without preoperative AF for comparative analyses. Of 620 consecutive patients, 19.2% (119) had permanent or paroxysmal AF preoperatively. Patients with AF were significantly older (70.5 vs 63.4 years, P < 0.001) and were more likely to be New Zealand European (82.4 vs 68.1%, P = 0.004). They also had higher prevalence of NYHA class III-IV (55.4 vs 37.4%, P = 0.004), inpatient operation (62.1 vs 48.3%, P = 0.008), history of stroke (10.9 vs 5.0%, P = 0.031), lower creatinine clearance (73 vs 82, P = 0.001) and higher EuroSCORE II (5.2 vs 3.4%, P < 0.001). Operative mortality (6.7 vs 2.0%, P = 0.012) and composite morbidity (27.7 vs 16.5%, P = 0.006) were also higher in patients with AF. After adjusting for significant variables, preoperative AF remained an independent predictor of operative mortality with an odds ratio of 3.44 (95% confidence interval 1.29-9.13), composite morbidity of 1.79 (1.05-3.04) and a mortality during follow-up hazards ratio of 2.36 (1.44-3.87). AF was associated with several cardiovascular and cardiac surgery risk factors, but remained independently associated with short- and long-term mortality. AF should be incorporated into cardiac surgery risk models and surgical AF ablation may be considered with AVR.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 05/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu128 · 1.16 Impact Factor
Show more