The Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with a Reduction in Premature Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults
ABSTRACT The available large prospective studies supporting an inverse association between better adherence to the Mediterranean diet and lower mortality have mainly included older adults. It is not clear whether this inverse association is also present among younger individuals at lower mortality risk. Our aim was to assess the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and total mortality in middle-aged adults from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project. We followed 15,535 Spanish university graduates for a mean of 6.8 y. Their mean age was 38 ± 12 y, 59.6% were females, and all were initially free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. A validated FFQ was used to assess dietary habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was categorized into 3 groups according to the Mediterranean Diet Score (low, 0-2 points; moderate, 3-5 points; and high, 6-9 points). The outcome variable was total mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% CI. We adjusted the estimates for sex, age, years of university education, BMI, smoking, physical activity, television watching, history of depression and baseline hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. We observed 125 deaths during 105,980 person-years of follow-up. The fully adjusted HR for moderate and high adherence were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.99; P = 0.05) and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P = 0.002), respectively. For each 2-point increment in the Mediterranean Diet Score, the HR of death was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.91; P = 0.006). Among highly educated, middle-aged adults, adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of death.
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- "Scientific evidence from several sources has accumulated on the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing cardiovascular disease   and some types of cancer  , and in reducing overall mortality . The benefits of the Mediterranean diet have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant effect of some of its components . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) in an experimental model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. After reoxygenation the increase in lactate dehydrogenase efflux was inhibited by HT in a concentration-dependent manner and dose-dependent inhibition after oral administration to rats for 7 days (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg per day). Maximum inhibition was 57.4% in vitro and 38.7% ex vivo. Hydroxytyrosol reduced oxidative stress parameters: it inhibited lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic activities related with the glutathione system both in vitro and after oral administration to rats. The increase in prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β after reoxygenation were inhibited after incubation of brain slices with HT and after oral administration. The accumulation of nitric oxide in brain slices was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, HT exerts a neuroprotective effect in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices, both in vitro and after 7 days of oral administration to rats. HT exerts an antioxidant activity and lowered some inflammatory markers in this model.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 12/2013; 24(12):2152-2157. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.08.007 · 4.59 Impact Factor
- Current opinion in lipidology 02/2013; 24(1):96-100. DOI:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32835c94d2 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The low lipophilicity of hydroxytyrosol (HT) has motivated efforts to synthesize homologous series with better lipid solubility, such as the ethers, which are more lipophilic than HT. Because HT inhibits platelet aggregation, the aim of the study was to assess the possible anti-platelet effect of five HT ether derivatives (ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl and dodecyl) after oral administration to rats. Whole blood collagen-induced platelet aggregation and calcium-induced thromboxane B2 (TxB2), aortic 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and nitrites + nitrates, plasma concentration of lipid peroxides (TBARS) and red blood cell content of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. The administration of 20 mg/kg/day inhibited platelet aggregation, TxB2 and TBARS in a non-linear manner related to the length of the carbon chain, with a cut-off effect in the hexyl derivative. Aortic nitrite and red blood cell GSH production were also increased. The aortic production of 6-keto-PGF1α was unaltered except in the group treated with the dodecyl derivative. The administration of 50 mg/kg/day showed a similar pharmacodynamic profile but without the non-linear effect. In conclusion, HT ethers, especially the hexyl derivative, are a potential alternative to hydroxytyrosol, and their effect merits additional research to determine their role in the prophylaxis of vascular disease.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.04.045 · 2.61 Impact Factor