Article

Preliminary investigation on antimicrobial and proteolytic property of the epidermal mucus secretion of marine stingrays

Center of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Portonovo, P.O. Box 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India
Ascian Jouran of Tropical Biomedicine 01/2011; DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60162-7

ABSTRACT Objective
To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the protease activity of the stingray mucus Dasyatis sephen (D. sephen) and Himantura gerrardi (H. gerrardi).Methods
Antimicrobial activity of crude aqueous, acidic and organic mucus extract was evaluated by disc diffusion method against human pathogens, MIC of the active samples were determined by spectrophotometric method and the protease activity which is responsible for the antimicrobial activity was determined by using zymogram method.ResultsThe crude acidic extracts of both the species showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the acidic extracts of both the species exhibit antifungal activity against all the tested pathogens. Remaining extracts didn't show any inhibitory activity. The acidic extracts of H. gerrardi is significantly active against S. typhi, E. coli, V. cholerae, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Alternaria alternaria (A. alternaria), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) at the minimum concentration of 16μ g/mL, but the acidic extract of D. sephen required 32μ g/mL of protein to inhibit S.typhi, E. coli, Aspergillus niger (A. niger), penicillium sp, T. mentagrophytes, A. alternaria. Both the D. sephen and H. gerrardi shows the proteolytic activity above the molecular mass of > 66 KDa. The characterization of protease class using inhibitors showed the presence of both serine and metallo protease in the the samples.Conclusions
Protease activity present in the sting ray mucus is one of the key factor responsible for the antimicrobial activity and the results proved the role of mucus in the innate immunity.

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    ABSTRACT: Resumo Acidentes com arraias da família Potamotrygonidae são muito comuns no Brasil. São animais de água doce e possuem de 1 a 3 ferrões de dentina, localizados na base da cauda, usados na defesa do animal. O ferrão é coberto por uma bainha tegumentar contendo glândulas mucosas e de veneno. Os acidentes geralmente acontecem quando as pessoas pisam no dorso do animal, escondido sob a areia. Por consequência, a arraia introduz o ferrão no pé ou no calcanhar da vítima, causando um ferimento extremamente dolorido, que muitas vezes infecciona e leva à necrose do tecido. Na região Amazônica, a questão é ainda mais grave, pois os acidentes costumam ocorrer em lugares distantes e isolados, muitas vezes, sem atendimento médico. O tratamento é baseado no uso de anti-inflamatórios e antibióticos, pois ainda não existe antídoto específico para o veneno das arraias. Palavras-chave: Potamotrygonidae; Potamotrygon; Arraias de água doce; Veneno; Ferrão. Abstract Accidents with stingrays of the Potamotrygonidae family are very common in Brazil. They are freshwater animals and have 1-3 dentin stingers, located at the base of the tail, used in protecting the animal. The stinger is covered by a cutaneous sheath containing mucous and poison cells. Accidents usually happen when people step on the back of the animal, hidden under the sand. Consequently, the ray enters the sting on the foot or the heel of the victim, causing an extremely painful injury, which infects and often leads to tissue necrosis. In the Amazon region, the issue is even more serious because accidents usually occur in distant and isolated localities, often without medical care. The treatment is based on the use of anti-inflammatories and antibiotics, as yet there is no specific antidote for the poison of stingrays.

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May 21, 2014