Costs associated with febrile neutropenia in the US.
ABSTRACT Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a potentially life-threatening condition that may develop in cancer patients treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy and result in considerable costs. This study was designed to estimate US healthcare utilization and costs in those experiencing FN by location of care, tumour type and mortality.
Cancer patients who received chemotherapy between 2001 and 2006 were identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database®, a longitudinal claims database with enrolment, medical, prescription and mortality information covering 12 health plans and more than 20 million US patients. Patients who experienced FN were prospectively matched using propensity score methods within each tumour type of interest (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer) to those not experiencing FN. Health resource utilization was compared per patient per month for unique prescriptions and visits (inpatient and outpatient) over the length of follow-up. Healthcare total paid costs adjusted to 2009 US dollars per patient per month were examined by FN group (FN vs non-FN, FN died vs FN survived), by source of care (physician office visit, outpatient services, hospitalization and prescriptions) and by tumour type. The number of unique FN-related encounters (inpatient and outpatient) and the number of patients experiencing at least one FN-related encounter were examined. The costs per encounter were tabulated. FN encounters differ from FN episodes in that a single FN episode may include multiple FN encounters (i.e. a patient is seen multiple times [encounters] for treatment of a single FN event [episode]).
A total of 5990 patients each were successfully matched between the FN and non-FN (control) groups. Health resource utilization was generally higher in those with FN than in controls. FN patients incurred greater costs (mean ± SD: $US9628 ± 12 517 per patient-month) than non-FN patients ($US8478 ± 12 978). Chemotherapy comprised the majority of costs for both FN (33.5%) and non-FN (40.6%) patients. The largest cost difference by categorical source of care was for hospitalization (p < 0.001). FN patients who died had the highest mean total costs compared with FN surviving patients ($US21 214 ± 25 596 per patient-month vs $US8227 ± 8850, respectively). Follow-up time for those surviving was, on average, 6.6 months longer. Hospitalization accounted for 53.1% of costs in those experiencing mortality with FN, while chemotherapy accounted for the majority of costs (37.1%) in surviving FN patients. A total of 6574 patients with at least one FN encounter experienced a total of 55 726 unique FN-related encounters, 90% of which were outpatient in nature. The majority of FN-related encounters (79%) occurred during the first chemotherapy course. The average costs for FN encounters were highest for inpatient encounters, $US22 086 ± 43 407, compared with $US985 ± 1677 for outpatient encounters.
The occurrence of FN in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy results in greater healthcare resource utilization and costs, with FN patients who die accounting for the greatest healthcare costs. Most FN patients experience at least one outpatient FN encounter, and the total cost of treatment for FN continues to be high.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The primary objective was to describe the total direct inpatient costs among solid tumor and lymphoma patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) and the factors that were associated with higher direct cost. The secondary objective was to describe the out-of-pocket patient payments and the factors that were associated with higher out-of-pocket patient payments. Methods: This was a single-center observational study conducted at the largest cancer center in Singapore. All of the adult cancer patients hospitalized due to FN from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The primary outcomes were the total hospital cost and the out-of-pocket patient payments (adjusted by government subsidy) per FN episode. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression were conducted to identify the factors associated with higher FN costs. Results: Three hundred and sixty seven adult cancer patients were documented with FN-related hospitalizations. The mean total hospital cost was US$4,193 (95% CI: US$3,779-4,607) and the mean out-of-pocket patient payment was US$2,230 (95% CI: US$1,976-2,484), per FN episode. The factors associated with a higher total hospital cost were longer length of stay, severe sepsis, and lymphoma as underlying cancer. The out-of-pocket patient payment was positively associated with longer length of stay, severe sepsis, lymphoma diagnosed as underlying cancer, the therapeutic use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), the private ward class, and younger patients. Conclusions: The total hospital cost and out-of-pocket patient payments of FN management in lymphoma cases were substantial compared with other solid tumors. Factors associated with a higher FN management cost may be useful for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the cost of FN for cancer patients.BMC Health Services Research 09/2014; 14(1):434. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-434 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Existing treatments for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) are often effective but can cause adverse events (AEs). This study aimed to identify AEs associated with chemotherapies commonly used in mBC treatment (phase 1) and to quantify the economic impact of these AEs (phase 2). Materials and Methods. Patients in phase 1 had at least one claim for therapy for mBC, with at least one episode with single or multiple agents. The most common chemotherapy-related complications were identified using medical and pharmacy claims data. In phase 2, patients meeting study criteria were divided into four treatment cohorts by the line of treatment and chemotherapy received: first-line taxane-treated patients, second-line taxane-treated patients, first-line capecitabine-treated patients, and second-line capecitabine-treated patients. Average monthly AE-related health care costs per cohort were stratified by cost component. Total monthly costs per number of AEs were also calculated. Results. On average, patients in phase 1 (n = 1,551) had 2 episodes of treatment, with a mean duration of 131 days. The most frequently noted complications were anemia (50.7% of mBC treatment episodes), bilirubin elevation (26.4%), and leukopenia (24.8%). In phase 2, costs related to AEs were primarily driven by incremental inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs. Increases in average monthly costs ranged from $854 (9.0%) to $5,320 (69.5%), according to cohort. Overall costs increased with increasing numbers of AEs. Conclusion. Chemotherapy-related AEs in patients with mBC are associated with a substantial economic burden that increases with thenumberof AEs reported.The Oncologist 08/2014; 19(9). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0059 · 4.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence exists concerning the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) associated with well-established, older chemotherapy regimens. Little is known, however, about the risks associated with many regimens that were introduced in the past decade and have become the predominant choice for certain cohorts of patients or are increasingly being used in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort design and US healthcare claims data (2006-2011) were employed. Study subjects included adult patients receiving the following: docetaxel + cyclophosphamide (TC), 5-FU + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide (FEC), FEC followed by docetaxel (FEC -> aEuro parts per thousand D), or docetaxel + carboplatin + trastuzumab (TCH) for non-metastatic breast cancer; TCH for metastatic breast cancer; 5-FU + leucovorin + irinotecan + oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) for metastatic pancreatic cancer; and bendamustine (with rituximab [BR], without rituximab [B-Mono]) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). For each patient, the first qualifying chemotherapy course and each cycle therein were identified, as were the use of supportive care-colony-stimulating factors (CSF) and antimicrobials (AMB)-and unique FN episodes. The crude risk (incidence proportion) of FN during the chemotherapy course ranged from 8.8 (95 % CI 8.3-9.3) to 10.6 % (9.3-12.1) among the breast cancer regimens, was slightly higher for the NHL regimens (BR, 10.5 % [8.9-12.4]; B-Mono, 14.7 % [11.2-18.9]), and was markedly higher for FOLFIRINOX (24.7 % [17.9-33.1]). Most patients developing FN required inpatient care (range, 73-90 %). Use of CSF primary prophylaxis ranged from 17 (B-Mono) to 75 % (FEC -> aEuro parts per thousand D); use of AMB primary prophylaxis ranged from 6 (FOLFIRINOX) to 13 % (B-Mono). The risk of FN among patients receiving selected emerging chemotherapy regimens is considerable, and most cases require inpatient care. Use of CSF and AMB prophylaxis, however, varies substantially across regimens.Supportive Care Cancer 08/2014; 22(12). DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2362-5 · 2.50 Impact Factor