Correlation of gallstone characteristics with mucosal changes in gall bladder.
ABSTRACT Gallstones are known to produce diverse histopathological changes in the gall bladder. Our aim was to correlate various gallstone characteristics (number, size, weight, volume and morphological type) with the type of mucosal response in gall bladder (inflammation, hyperplasia, metaplasia and carcinoma).
The study was conducted on 330 open cholecystectomy specimens with complete gallstones. The stones were assessed for various parameters i.e. number, size, weight, volume and morphological type. For microscopy, sections were obtained from the fundus, body and neck of the gallbladder. Additional sections were taken from abnormal looking areas.
Out of the 330 cases, 194 (59%) had mixed stones, 84 (25%) combined, 30 (9%) pigment and 22 (7%) had cholesterol stones. Number of stones varied from a single calculus in 131 (39.6%) cases, double in 29 (8.8%) and multiple in the remaining 170 (51.6%) cases. Cholecystitis, hyperplasia, metaplasia and carcinoma were more commonly seen with mixed and multiple stones. The average weight of calculi in cholecystitis was 2.551 gm, in hyperplasia 3.619 gm, metaplasia4.549 gm and 17.96 gm in cases with carcinoma. Similarly, average volume of the stone(s) was 2.664 ml in cholecystitis, 3.742 ml in hyperplasia, 4.532 ml in metaplasia and 19.178 ml in carcinoma. The average calculus size (2.147 cm) was found to be maximum in cases with carcinoma, followed by hyperplasia (1.187 cm), metaplasia (1.145 cm) and cholecystitis (1.136 cm).
As the weight, volume and size of the stone increases the changes in the gall bladder mucosa changes from cholecystitis, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, to carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Although typhoid fever has been intensively studied, chronic typhoid carriage still represents a problem for the transmission and persistence of the disease in endemic areas. This chronic state is highly associated with the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder of infected carriers upon which Salmonella can form robust biofilms. However, we hypothesize that in addition to gallstones, the gallbladder epithelium aids in the establishment/maintenance of chronic carriage. In this work, we present evidence of the role of the gallbladder epithelium in chronic carriage by a mechanism involving invasion, intracellular persistence and biofilm formation. Salmonella was able to adhere to and invade polarized gallbladder epithelial cells apically in the absence and presence of bile in a SPI-1 dependent manner. Intracellular replication of Salmonella was also evident at 12 and 24 hours post-invasion. A flow-through system revealed that Salmonella is able to adhere to and form extensive bacterial foci on gallbladder epithelial cell as soon as 12 hours post-inoculation. In vivo experiments using a chronic mouse model of typhoid carriage showed invasion and damage of the gallbladder epithelium and lamina propria up to 2 months after Salmonella infection with an abundant presence of macrophages, a relative absence of neutrophils, and extrusion of infected epithelial cells. Additionally, micro-colonies of Salmonella cells were evident on the surface of the mouse gallbladder epithelia up to 21 days post-infection. These data reveal a second potential mechanism, intracellular persistence and/or bacterial aggregation in/on the gallbladder epithelium with luminal cell extrusion, for Salmonella maintenance in the gallbladder.Infection and immunity 06/2013; DOI:10.1128/IAI.00258-13 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common biliary tract malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. Epidemiological data have demonstrated that chronic inflammation resulting from infection of gallbladder or gallstones predispose individuals to GBC. Recent studies have begun to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GBC in the setting of chronic inflammation. It is possible that persistently local inflammatory reactions may contribute to the development and progression of GBC through inducing genetic alterations, and subsequent promoting survival and proliferation of mutated sells, inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. This article reviews the current understanding of the involvement of chronic inflammation in gallbladder tumorigenesis.Cancer letters 08/2013; 345(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.08.034 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84058. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084058 · 3.53 Impact Factor