Article

The association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 with behavioural problems in childhood.

Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 07/2012; 7(7):e40097. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040097
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Higher serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), an indicator of vitamin D synthesis and intake, have been associated with better mental health and cognitive function. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (the active vitamin D(3) metabolite) have been associated with openness and extrovert behaviour, but 25(OH)D concentrations have not been associated with behavioural problems in humans.
We investigated the prospective association between the different forms of 25(OH)D - 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2)- and childhood behavioural problems in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Serum 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) concentrations were assessed at mean age 9.9 years. Incident behavioural problems were assessed with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention problems, peer relationship problems and pro-social behaviour subscales and total difficulties score) at mean age 11.7. Sample sizes varied between 2413-2666 depending on the outcome.
Higher 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were weakly associated with lower risk of prosocial problems (fully adjusted odds ratio: OR (95% confidence interval: CI) 0.85 (0.74, 0.98)). Serum 25(OH)D(3) or 25(OH)D(2) concentrations were not associated with other subscales of SDQ or total difficulties score after adjusting for concfounders and other measured analytes related to vitamin D.
Our findings do not support the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in childhood has important influences on behavioural traits in humans.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status during prenatal brain development may influence risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, there are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. We aimed to examine whether maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD-like symptoms in offspring. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study analyzing data from 1,650 mother-child pairs from five birth cohorts embedded in the INMA Project (Spain, 1997-2008). Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy was estimated by measuring plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at 13 weeks of gestation. Children were assessed by teachers for ADHD-like symptoms at ages 4-5 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD form list. RESULTS: After adjustment, the number of total ADHD-like symptoms in children decreased by 11% per 10 ng/ml increment of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.98). Similarly, the number of symptoms in the ADHD subscales decreased in relation to higher maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (IRR per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.99 for the inattention scale; and IRR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99 for the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale). Using diagnostic criteria, we found an association of increasing maternal 25(OH)D3 with a lower risk of ADHD DSM-IV (relative risk ratio per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06) and ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (relative risk ratio = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.04) in children. CONCLUSION: Higher maternal circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy are associated with lower risk of developing ADHD-like symptoms in childhood.
    Epidemiology 04/2015; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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