NELL-1 promotes cell adhesion and differentiation via Integrinβ1
ABSTRACT NELL-1 (Nel-like molecule-1) is a secreted osteogenic growth factor first identified in human craniosynostosis (CS) patients. NELL-1 protein has been observed to promote bone and cartilage differentiation and to suppress adipogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Despite these findings, the cell surface receptors of NELL-1 have remained unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that NELL-1 promotes cell adherence in multiple cell lines, including ST2, C3H10T1/2, M2-10B4, ATDC5, and MC3T3 cells. Additionally, we found that NELL-1 binds to extracellular Integrinβ1 and induces cell focal adhesion. By utilizing siRNA methods, we determined that NELL-1 cell surface binding and enhanced cell attachment were dependent on Integrinβ1 expression. Finally, we observed that pre-coating of culture dishes or PLGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold with NELL-1 resulted in a significant increase in both cell attachment and osteogenic differentiation. Our results identify for the first time a cell surface target of NELL-1, Integrinβ1, and elucidate new functions of NELL-1 in promoting cell adherence and osteogenic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 3620-3628, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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- "Integrinβ1 was recently identified as the first cell surface receptor of NELL-1 . Cell surface binding in a pre-osteoblast cell line required Integrinβ1 expression . Moreover, siRNA for Integrinβ1 blocked at least some of the cellular effects of NELL-1, including induction of pre-osteoblast attachment . "
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR γ ) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). These two transcription factors, PPAR γ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β -catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.12/2013; 2013(1):684736. DOI:10.1155/2013/684736
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ABSTRACT: Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.Pharmacological reviews 04/2013; 65(3):1091-1133. DOI:10.1124/pr.112.007393 · 17.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from decellularized tissues effectively reprogram key stages of the mammalian response to injury, altering the wound microenvironment from one that promotes scar tissue formation to one that stimulates constructive and functional tissue remodeling. In contrast, engineered scaffolds, composed of purified ECM components such as collagen, lack the complex ultrastructure and composition of intact ECM and may promote wound healing but lack factors that facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that addition of NELL1, a signaling protein that controls cell growth and differentiation, enhances the constructive tissue remodeling of a purified collagen scaffold. An abdominal wall defect model in the rat of 1.5-cm(2) partial thickness was used to compare the constructive remodeling of a bovine type I collagen scaffold to a biologic scaffold derived from small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-ECM with and without augmentation with 17 μg NELL1 protein. Samples were evaluated histologically at 14 days and 4 months. The contractile response of the defect site was also evaluated at 4 months. Addition of NELL1 protein improved the constructive remodeling of collagen scaffolds but not SIS-ECM scaffolds. Results showed an increase in the contractile force of the remodeled skeletal muscle and a fast:slow muscle composition similar to native tissue in the collagen-treated group. The already robust remodeling response to SIS-ECM was not enhanced by NELL1 at the dose tested. These findings suggest that NELL1 protein does contribute to the enhanced constructive remodeling of skeletal muscle. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Cells Tissues Organs 12/2013; 198(4). DOI:10.1159/000356491 · 2.14 Impact Factor