ABSTRACT Adrenocortical insufficiency may arise through primary failure of the adrenal glands or due to lack of ACTH stimulation as a result of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction. Prolonged administration of exogenous steroids will suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and hence cortisol secretion. We review briefly the causes, investigation, and treatment of adrenal insufficiency, and highlight aspects of particular relevance to patients with adrenal tumors. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012; 106:595-599. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Some recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) can cross the neonatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently transduce cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the adult CNS, transduction levels by systemically delivered rAAVs are significantly reduced, limiting their potential for CNS gene therapy. Here, we characterized 12 different rAAVEGFPs in the adult mouse CNS following intravenous delivery. We show that the capability of crossing the adult BBB and achieving widespread CNS transduction is a common character of AAV serotypes tested. Of note, rAAVrh.8 is the leading vector for robust global transduction of glial and neuronal cell types in regions of clinical importance such as cortex, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, corpus callosum and substantia nigra. It also displays reduced peripheral tissue tropism compared to other leading vectors. Additionally, we evaluated rAAVrh.10 with and without microRNA (miRNA)-regulated expressional detargeting from peripheral tissues for systemic gene delivery to the CNS in marmosets. Our results indicate that rAAVrh.8, along with rh.10 and 9, hold the best promise for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat neurological diseases in the adult patient population. Additionally, systemically delivered rAAVrh.10 can transduce the CNS efficiently and its transgene expression can be limited in the periphery by endogenous miRNAs in adult marmosets.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.68.Molecular Therapy 04/2014; 22(7). DOI:10.1038/mt.2014.68 · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We herein report an autopsy case involving a 27-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from chronic adrenocortical insufficiency with a background of a polyendocrine disorder. Postmortem biochemistry revealed pathologically decreased aldosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in postmortem serum from femoral blood as well as decreased cortisol and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid in urine. Decreased vitreous sodium and increased 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate and C-reactive protein concentrations were observed. The cause of death was determined to be acute adrenocortical insufficiency. Fasting ketoacidosis was postulated to have precipitated the Addisonian crisis. Traumatic causes of death and third-party involvement were excluded. The case highlights the importance of systematically performing exhaustive postmortem biochemical investigations to formulate appropriate hypothesis regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the death process.Journal of Forensic Sciences 02/2014; 59(4). DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.12446 · 1.31 Impact Factor
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 07/2014; 89(7):1004-8. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.09.022 · 5.81 Impact Factor