Association between hyperkalemia at critical care initiation and mortality.
ABSTRACT To investigate the association between potassium concentration at the initiation of critical care and all-cause mortality.
We performed a retrospective observational study on 39,705 patients, age ≥18 years, who received critical care between 1997 and 2007 in two tertiary care hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. The exposure of interest was the highest potassium concentration on the day of critical care initiation and categorized a priori as 4.0-4.5, 4.5-5.0, 5.0-5.5, 5.5-6.0, 6.0-6.5, or ≥6.5 mEq/l. Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90, and 365 post-critical care initiation, and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models.
The potassium concentration was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality 30 days following critical care initiation with a significant risk gradient across potassium groups following multivariable adjustment: K = 4.5-5.0 mEq/l OR 1.25 (95 % CI, 1.16-1.35; P < 0.0001); K = 5.0-5.5 mEq/l OR 1.42 (95 % CI, 1.29-1.56; P < 0.0001); K = 5.5-6.0 mEq/l OR 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.47-1.89; P < 0.0001); K = 6.0-6.5 mEq/l OR 1.63 (95 % CI, 1.36-1.95; P < 0.0001); K > 6.5 mEq/l OR 1.72 (95 % CI, 1.49-1.99; P < 0.0001); all relative to patients with K = 4.0-4.5 mEq/l. Similar significant associations post multivariable adjustments are seen with in-hospital mortality and death by days 90 and 365 post-critical care initiation. In patients whose hyperkalemia decreases ≥1 mEq/l in 48 h post-critical care initiation, the association between high potassium levels and mortality is no longer significant.
Our study demonstrates that a patient's potassium level at critical care initiation is robustly associated with the risk of death even at moderate increases above normal.
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ABSTRACT: Administrative and claims databases may be useful for the study of acute renal failure (ARF) and ARF that requires dialysis (ARF-D), but the validity of the corresponding diagnosis and procedure codes is unknown. The performance characteristics of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for ARF were assessed against serum creatinine-based definitions of ARF in 97,705 adult discharges from three Boston hospitals in 2004. For ARF-D, ICD-9-CM codes were compared with review of medical records in 150 patients with ARF-D and 150 control patients. As compared with a diagnostic standard of a 100% change in serum creatinine, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF had a sensitivity of 35.4%, specificity of 97.7%, positive predictive value of 47.9%, and negative predictive value of 96.1%. As compared with review of medical records, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D had positive predictive value of 94.0% and negative predictive value of 90.0%. It is concluded that administrative databases may be a powerful tool for the study of ARF, although the low sensitivity of ARF codes is an important caveat. The excellent performance characteristics of ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D suggest that administrative data sets may be particularly well suited for research endeavors that involve patients with ARF-D.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2006; 17(6):1688-94. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic liver diseases are common in the general population. Drug treatment in this group may be challenging, as many drugs are hepatically metabolised and hepatotoxic. We aimed to assess the mortality of patients with chronic liver disease according to specific drug exposures and the three laboratory parameters creatinine, bilirubin and International Normalised Ratio (INR). We conducted a multicentre, 5-year retrospective cohort study in two tertiary university referral hospitals and a secondary referral hospital, using a research database to evaluate the crude and adjusted mortality. Of 1159362 individual patients 1.7% (n = 20158) had chronic liver disease and in this group 36.8% had unspecified chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, 30.1% chronic hepatitis C and 11.9% cirrhosis of the liver. 8.4% of patients presented a diagnosis associated with alcohol. The 4-year survival rates were significantly higher in the group with the most normal laboratory values (94.3%) versus 34.5% in the group with elevated parameters (p <0.001). Overall, drug exposure was not associated with higher mortality; in adjusted multivariate analysis the hazard ratio for anti-cancer drugs was 2.69 (95% CI 1.32-5.46). Of individual drugs, mortality hazard ratios for amiodarone, morphine oral, acetazolamide, sirolimus and lamivudine were 2.46 (95% CI 1.68-3.61), 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), 2.10 (95% CI 1.19-3.70), 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.21) and 1.72 (95% CI 1.17-2.53) respectively. Drug exposure in general was not associated with higher mortality except for a few categories. Mortality in patients with chronic liver disease was high and is associated with simple laboratory values.Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 11/2009; 139(51-52):737-46. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of low-dose prolonged methylprednisolone infusion on lung function in patients with early severe ARDS. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. ICUs of five hospitals in Memphis. Ninety-one patients with severe early ARDS (</= 72 h), 66% with sepsis. Patients were randomized (2:1 fashion) to methylprednisolone infusion (1 mg/kg/d) vs placebo. The duration of treatment was up to 28 days. Infection surveillance and avoidance of paralysis were integral components of the protocol. The predefined primary end point was a 1-point reduction in lung injury score (LIS) or successful extubation by day 7. In intention-to-treat analysis, the response of the two groups (63 treated and 28 control) clearly diverged by day 7, with twice the proportion of treated patients achieving a 1-point reduction in LIS (69.8% vs 35.7%; p = 0.002) and breathing without assistance (53.9% vs 25.0%; p = 0.01). Treated patients had significant reduction in C-reactive protein levels, and by day 7 had lower LIS and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome scores. Treatment was associated with a reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.002), ICU stay (p = 0.007), and ICU mortality (20.6% vs 42.9%; p = 0.03). Treated patients had a lower rate of infections (p = 0.0002), and infection surveillance identified 56% of nosocomial infections in patients without fever. Methylprednisolone-induced down-regulation of systemic inflammation was associated with significant improvement in pulmonary and extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay.Chest 04/2007; 131(4):954-63. · 5.85 Impact Factor