Taxifolin Suppresses UV-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis by Targeting EGFR and PI3K
ABSTRACT Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Taxifolin reportedly exerts multiple biologic effects, but the molecular mechanisms and direct target(s) of taxifolin in skin cancer chemoprevention are still unknown. In silico computer screening and kinase profiling results suggest that the EGF receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Src are potential targets for taxifolin. Pull-down assay results showed that EGFR, PI3K, and Src directly interacted with taxifolin in vitro, whereas taxifolin bound to EGFR and PI3K, but not to Src in cells. ATP competition and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that taxifolin interacted with EGFR and PI3K at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibited their kinase activities. Western blot analysis showed that taxifolin suppressed UVB-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt, and subsequently suppressed their signaling pathways in JB6 P+ mouse skin epidermal cells. Expression levels and promoter activity of COX-2 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) generation induced by UVB were also attenuated by taxifolin. The effect of taxifolin on UVB-induced signaling pathways and PGE(2) generation was reduced in EGFR knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) compared with EGFR wild-type MEFs. Taxifolin also inhibited EGF-induced cell transformation. Importantly, topical treatment of taxifolin to the dorsal skin significantly suppressed tumor incidence, volume, and multiplicity in a solar UV (SUV)-induced skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Further analysis showed that the taxifolin-treated group had a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in mouse skin. These results suggest that taxifolin exerts chemopreventive activity against UV-induced skin carcinogenesis by targeting EGFR and PI3K. Cancer Prev Res; 5(9); 1103-14. ©2012 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: Chemoprophylaxis and chemosensitization are promising strategies to combat human cancers. Natural antioxidant agents show great promise in cancer therapy, and the use of edible mushrooms against cancer is receiving more interest globally. In this study, the radical scavenging activities including diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide were compared among hot water extracts from 3 edible mushrooms, among which Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp) possessed the highest antioxidant potential. Oral administration of Pp 2 wk in advance could markedly inhibit the incidence and size of tumor (Huh7 liver cancer cells) with an inhibition rate of 93.1% in nude mice. No obvious side effect was observed in the Pp-treated mice as indicated by their body weight and histological analysis of major organs. The cancer prevention by Pp treatment might be explained by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation indicated by reduction of ki-67 staining and the inactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in the Pp-treated mice. Furthermore, a significant synergistic effect was observed when the mice were treated with a combination of low dose of cisplatin and Pp. Taken together, these results suggest the potential application of Pp as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of liver cancer.Nutrition and Cancer 07/2014; DOI:10.1080/01635581.2014.936950 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction method (ILMAE) was successfully applied for the extraction of taxifolin from Larix gmelinii. Different kinds of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different kinds of cations and anions were studied and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was chosen as the optimal solvent for taxifolin extraction. The optimal conditions of ILMAE were determined by single factor experiments and Box-Behnken design as follows: [C4mim]Br concentration of 1.00 M, soaking time of 2 h, liquid-solid ratio of 15:1 mL/g, microwave irradiation power of 406 W, microwave irradiation time of 14 min. No degradation of taxifolin had been observed under the optimum conditions as evidenced from the stability studies performed with standard taxifolin. Compared with traditional solvent and methods, ILMAE provided higher extraction yield, lower energy and time consumption. The distribution of taxifolin in different parts of larch and the influences of age, orientation, and season on the accumulation of taxifolin were analyzed for the sufficient utilization of L. gmelinii.Molecules 12/2014; 19(12):19471-90. DOI:10.3390/molecules191219471 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the antiplatelet activity of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ).