Structural basis for receptor sharing and activation by interleukin-20 receptor-2 (IL-20R2) binding cytokines.

Center for Biophysical Sciences, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 07/2012; 109(31):12704-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1117551109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interleukin 20 (IL-20) is a pleotropic IL-10 family cytokine that protects epithelial surfaces from pathogens. However, dysregulated IL-20 signaling is implicated in several human pathologies including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis. IL-20, and related cytokines IL-19 and IL-24, designated IL-20 subfamily cytokines (IL-20SFCs), induce cellular responses through an IL-20R1/IL-20R2 (type I) receptor heterodimer, whereas IL-20 and IL-24 also signal through the IL-22R1/IL-20R2 (type II) receptor complex. The crystal structure of the IL-20/IL-20R1/IL-20R2 complex reveals how type I and II complexes discriminate cognate from noncognate ligands. The structure also defines how the receptor-cytokine interfaces are affinity tuned to allow distinct signaling through a receptor complex shared by three different ligands. Our results provide unique insights into the complexity of IL-20SFC signaling that may be critical in the design of mechanistic-based inhibitors of IL-20SFC-mediated inflammatory disease.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Graphical abstract Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
    Iranian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jmhi.2014.05.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is growing appreciation that resident glial cells can initiate and/or regulate inflammation following trauma or infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated the ability of microglia and astrocytes to respond to bacterial pathogens or their products by rapid production of inflammatory mediators, followed by the production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)−10. IL-19, another member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, has been studied in the context of a number of inflammatory conditions in the periphery and is known to modulate immune cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate the constitutive and/or inducible expression of IL-19 and its cognate receptor subunits, IL-19Rα and IL-19Rβ (also known as IL-20R1 and IL-20R2, and IL-20RA and IL-20RB), in mouse brain tissue, and by primary murine and human astrocytes. We also provide evidence for the presence of a novel truncated IL-19Rα transcript variant in mouse brain tissue, but not glial cells, that shows reduced expression following bacterial infection. Importantly, IL-19R functionality in glia is indicated by the ability of IL-19 to regulate signaling component expression in these cells. Furthermore, while IL-19 itself had no effect on glial cytokine production, IL-19 treatment of bacterially infected or Toll-like receptor ligand stimulated astrocytes significantly attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The bacterially induced production of IL-19 by these resident CNS cells, the constitutive expression of its cognate receptor subunits, and the immunomodulatory effects of this cytokine, suggest a novel mechanism by which astrocytes can regulate CNS inflammation. GLIA 2014
    Glia 02/2014; DOI:10.1002/glia.22644 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The class II cytokine family consists of small α-helical signaling proteins including the interleukin-10 (IL-10)/IL-22 family, as well as interferons (IFNs). They regulate the innate immune response and in addition have an important role in protecting epithelial tissues. Teleost fish possess a class II cytokine system surprisingly similar to that of humans, and thus zebrafish offers an attractive model organism for investigating the role of class II cytokines in inflammation. However, the evolution of class II cytokines is critical to understand if we are to take full advantage of zebrafish as a model system. The small size and fast evolution of these cytokines obscure phylogenetic analyses based purely on sequences, but one can overcome this obstacle by using information contained within the structure of those molecules. Here we present the crystal structure of IL-22 from zebrafish (zIL-22) solved at 2.1 Å, which displays a typical class II cytokine architecture. We generated a structure-guided alignment of vertebrate class II cytokines and used it for phylogenetic analysis. Our analysis suggests that IL-22 and IL-26 arose early during the evolution of the IL-10-like cytokines. Thus, we propose an evolutionary scenario of class II cytokines in vertebrates, based on genomic and structural data.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 15 May 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.18.
    Genes and immunity 05/2014; DOI:10.1038/gene.2014.18 · 4.22 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 26, 2014