Article

The atypical E2F family member E2F7 couples the p53 and RB pathways during cellular senescence.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
Genes & development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 07/2012; 26(14):1546-57. DOI: 10.1101/gad.196238.112
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oncogene-induced senescence is an anti-proliferative stress response program that acts as a fail-safe mechanism to limit oncogenic transformation and is regulated by the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and p53 tumor suppressor pathways. We identify the atypical E2F family member E2F7 as the only E2F transcription factor potently up-regulated during oncogene-induced senescence, a setting where it acts in response to p53 as a direct transcriptional target. Once induced, E2F7 binds and represses a series of E2F target genes and cooperates with RB to efficiently promote cell cycle arrest and limit oncogenic transformation. Disruption of RB triggers a further increase in E2F7, which induces a second cell cycle checkpoint that prevents unconstrained cell division despite aberrant DNA replication. Mechanistically, E2F7 compensates for the loss of RB in repressing mitotic E2F target genes. Together, our results identify a causal role for E2F7 in cellular senescence and uncover a novel link between the RB and p53 pathways.

1 Follower
 · 
163 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor coordinates a series of antiproliferative responses that restrict the expansion of malignant cells, and as a consequence, p53 is lost or mutated in the majority of human cancers. Here, we show that p53 restricts expression of the stem and progenitor-cell-associated protein nestin in an Sp1/3 transcription-factor-dependent manner and that Nestin is required for tumor initiation in vivo. Moreover, loss of p53 facilitates dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into nestin-positive progenitor-like cells, which are poised to differentiate into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) or cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) in response to lineage-specific mutations that target Wnt and Notch signaling, respectively. Many human HCCs and CCs show elevated nestin expression, which correlates with p53 loss of function and is associated with decreased patient survival. Therefore, transcriptional repression of Nestin by p53 restricts cellular plasticity and tumorigenesis in liver cancer.
    Cell 07/2014; 158(3):579-92. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.051 · 33.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor p53 is known to regulate the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can either alleviate oxidative stress under physiological and mildly stressed conditions or exacerbate oxidative stress under highly stressed conditions. We here report that a p53-ROS positive feedback loop drives a senescence program in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) and this senescence-driving loop is negatively regulated by CUL4B. CUL4B, which can assemble various ubiquitin E3 ligases, was found to be downregulated in stress-induced senescent cells, but not in replicative senescent cells. We observed that p53-dependent ROS production was significantly augmented and stress-induced senescence was greatly enhanced when CUL4B was absent or depleted. Ectopic expression of CUL4B, on the other hand, blunted p53 activation, reduced ROS production and attenuated cellular senescence in cells treated with H2O2. CUL4B was shown to promote p53 ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in NHFs exposed to oxidative stress, thus dampening the p53-dependent cellular senescence. Together, our results established a critical role of CUL4B in negatively regulating the p53-ROS positive feedback loop that drives cellular senescence.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2014; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.11.010 · 5.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human oncogenic Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses a set of ∼20 viral miRNAs. miR-K10a stands out among these miRNAs because its entire stem-loop precursor overlaps the coding sequence for the Kaposin (Kap) A/C proteins. The ectopic expression of KapA has been reported to lead to transformation of rodent fibroblasts. However, these experiments inadvertently also introduced miR-K10a, which raises the question whether the transforming activity of the locus could in fact be due to miR-K10a expression. To answer this question, we have uncoupled miR-K10a and KapA expression. Our experiments revealed that miR-K10a alone transformed cells with similar efficiency as its co-expression with KapA. Maintenance of the transformed phenotype was conditional upon continued miR-K10a but not KapA protein expression, consistent with its dependence on miRNA-mediated changes in gene expression. Importantly, miR-K10a taps into an evolutionary conserved network of miR-142-3p targets, several of which are expressed in 3T3 cells and are also known inhibitors of cellular transformation. In summary, our studies of miR-K10a serve as an example of an unsuspected function of a miRNA whose precursor is embedded within a coding transcript. In addition, our identification of conserved miR-K10a targets that limit transformation will point the way to a better understanding of the role of this miRNA in KSHV-associated tumors. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human tumor virus. The viral Kaposin locus has known oncogenic potential, which has previously been ascribed to the encoded KapA protein. Here we show that the virally encoded miR-K10a miRNA, whose precursor overlaps the KapA coding region, may account for the oncogenic properties of this locus. Our data suggest that miR-K10a mimics the cellular miRNA miR-142-3p and thereby represses several known inhibitors of oncogenic transformation. Our work demonstrates that functional properties ascribed to a coding region may in fact be carried out by an embedded non-coding element and sheds light on the functions of viral miR-K10a. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Journal of Virology 12/2014; DOI:10.1128/JVI.03317-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from