Short Report: Detection of Nipah Virus RNA in Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India
ABSTRACT The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India.
SourceAvailable from: Balbir Bagicha Singh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. The presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in India's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. Factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens from India's wildlife. The introduction of a novel Kyasanur forest disease virus (family flaviviridae) into human populations in 1957 and subsequent occurrence of seasonal outbreaks demonstrate the key role that India's wild animals play in the emergence and reemergence of zoonotic pathogens. Other high priority zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin which could affect both livestock and humans include influenza, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, plague, leptospirosis, anthrax and leishmaniasis. Continuous monitoring of India's extensively diverse and dispersed wildlife is challenging, but their use as indicators should facilitate efficient and rapid disease-outbreak response across the region and occasionally the globe. Defining and prioritizing research on zoonotic pathogens in wildlife are essential, particularly in a multidisciplinary one-world one-health approach which includes human and veterinary medical studies at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. This review indicates that wild animals play an important role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens and provides brief summaries of the zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in India.Acta Tropica 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.009 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0115736. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115736 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus.Journal of Virology 03/2014; 88(6). DOI:10.1128/JVI.02617-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor