Association between helmets and facial injury after a motorcycle collision: An analysis of more than 40 000 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank

Department of Surgery, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) (Impact Factor: 4.93). 07/2012; 147(7):674-6. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.2012.894
Source: PubMed


Motorcycle collisions are increasing at a precipitous rate, and reliable and valid data regarding all aspects of helmet safety are needed to better inform ongoing debates on mandatory helmet laws. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of motorcycle helmets on the likelihood of a facial injury after motorcycle collisions, using data from the National Trauma Data Bank, version 7.0, on 46 362 patients from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2006. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the independent association between helmets and facial injury with adjustment for potential confounders. Helmeted motorcyclists were less likely to suffer facial injuries after a motorcycle collision, with a lower adjusted odds ratio of facial injury (0.40; 95% CI, 0.37-0.43) and a lower prevalence of specific types of facial injury compared with their nonhelmeted counterparts.

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    • "There are three main factors to consider when addressing the effectiveness of helmets including i) whether or not a helmet is worn, ii) the protective characteristics of different types of helmets, and iii) fixation status. With respect to the first of these, there is overwhelming evidence that wearing a helmet in comparison with not wearing a helmet is beneficial [4,12-16]. The Cochrane review conducted in 2008 concluded that helmets reduced risks of death by 42% and serious head injury by 69% [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The effectiveness of helmets in reducing the risk of severe head injury in motorcyclists who were involved in a crash is well established. There is limited evidence however, regarding the extent to which helmets protect riders from facial injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of helmet type, components and fixation status on the risk of facial injuries among Malaysian motorcyclists. Method 755 injured motorcyclists were recruited over a 12-month period in 2010–2011 in southern Klang Valley, Malaysia in this case control study. Of the 755 injured motorcyclists, 391participants (51.8%) sustained facial injuries (cases) while 364 (48.2%) participants were without facial injury (control). The outcomes of interest were facial injury and location of facial injury (i.e. upper, middle and lower face injuries). A binary logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between helmet characteristics and the outcomes, taking into account potential confounders such as age, riding position, alcohol and illicit substance use, type of colliding vehicle and type of collision. Helmet fixation was defined as the position of the helmet during the crash whether it was still secured on the head or had been dislodged. Results Helmet fixation was shown to have a greater effect on facial injury outcome than helmet type. Increased odds of adverse outcome was observed for the non-fixed helmet compared to the fixed helmet with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.10 (95% CI 1.41- 3.13) for facial injury; AOR = 6.64 (95% CI 3.71-11.91) for upper face injury; AOR = 5.36 (95% CI 3.05-9.44) for middle face injury; and AOR = 2.00 (95% CI 1.22-3.26) for lower face injury. Motorcyclists with visor damage were shown with AOR = 5.48 (95% CI 1.46-20.57) to have facial injuries compared to those with an undamaged visor. Conclusions A helmet of any type that is properly worn and remains fixed on the head throughout a crash will provide some form of protection against facial injury. Visor damage is a significant contributing factor for facial injury. These findings are discussed with reference to implications for policy and initiatives addressing helmet use and wearing behaviors.
    BMC Emergency Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1471-227X-14-17
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    • "Alcohol use is a risk factor for road traffic accidents and fatal injuries [11] [12] [13]. The use of protective devices, however, has been found to reduce the severity of injuries that may result from road traffic accidents considerably [12] [14] [15] [16]. Helmets, Goggles and Gloves are some of the personal protective devices that are readily available to the commercial motorcyclists. "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of road traffic accidents and severe crash injuries involving commercial motorcyclist has risen significantly in recent times in Nigeria. Human factors, vehicular conditions and the state of Nigeri an roads are some of the reasons that have been adduced for this increase. Three hundred commercial motorcyclists in Sagamu , South West, Nigeria were recruited into the study. Wit h the aid of structured interviewer administered questionnaire s, the risk related behavio urs of motorcyclists were studied as it relates to the occurrence of road traffic crashes. A ll respondents were males, mostly young people , who had no formal training prior to riding. Three percent (3%) of the respondents use d crash helmet whereas, 62.7% take alcohol during work hours and 34.7% smoke cigarette. There was a high prevalence of high risk behaviour for road traffic accidents and severe crash injuries among the respondents due to a lack of safety consciousness and non - enforcement of regulations prohibiting high risk behaviours . A concerted effort should be made to create a safety consciousness among commercial motorcyclists while e nsuring strict enforcement of regulation concerning training before licensing and use of protective devices. Prohibition of psychoactive substance use during work hours is hereby recommended.
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    ABSTRACT: India records the maximum number of deaths from motorised two-wheeler vehicle (MTV) accidents in the world with mandatory helmet laws for males but not females. This study was designed to investigate injury patterns, severity, mortality, and helmet usage among hospital admitted victims of a MTV crash with a paired subgroup analyses on female victims. Hospital trauma registry from January 2011 to July 2012 for all adult victims of a MTV crash was analysed for outcomes of mortality, serious head injury, severe facial injury, and cervical spine injury while adjusting for age, gender, use of alcohol/drugs, injury severity score, and presence of shock by multivariable logistic regression model. Groups of helmeted victims (HV) and nonhelmeted victims (NHV) were identified. A total of 2,718 victims were included. HV suffered maximum injuries to the lower extremity (29.04 %) and had reduced adjusted odds of death (odds ratio (OR) 0.65; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.86), serious head injury (OR 0.34; CI 0.26-0.45), cervical spine injury (OR 0.74; CI 0.54-1.06), and serious facial injury (OR 0.87; CI 0.57-1.26) compared with NHV who suffered maximum injuries to the head (24.49 %). Compliance with helmet use was 52.91 and 7.94 % among males and females respectively. A total of 224 pairs of male driver and female pillion involved in same MTV crash were identified, and the predominantly helmeted male had reduced odds of death (OR 0.44; CI 0.21-0.84) and severe head injury (OR 0.42; CI 0.24-0.72) compared with overwhelmingly nonhelmeted females. Helmet laws must be strictly enforced, and society should think about the cost being born by its fairer counterpart by the gender-based differential law.
    World Journal of Surgery 10/2013; 38(1). DOI:10.1007/s00268-013-2230-3 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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