Novel FixL homologues in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bind heme and O-2
ABSTRACT Genome inspection revealed nine putative heme-binding, FixL-homologous proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The heme-binding domains from two of these proteins, FXL1 and FXL5 were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The recombinant FXL1 and FXL5 domains stained positively for heme, while mutations in the putative ligand-binding histidine FXL1-H200S and FXL5-H200S resulted in loss of heme binding. The FXL1 and FXL5 [Fe(II), bound O(2)] had Soret absorption maxima around 415nm, and weaker absorptions at longer wavelengths, in concurrence with the literature. Ligand-binding measurements showed that FXL1 and FXL5 bind O(2) with moderate affinity, 135 and 222μM, respectively. This suggests that Chlamydomonas may use the FXL proteins in O(2)-sensing mechanisms analogous to that reported in nitrogen-fixing bacteria to regulate gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection.Journal of inorganic biochemistry 01/2014; 133. DOI:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.12.010 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anaerobiosis is a stress condition for aerobic organisms and requires extensive acclimation responses. We used RNA-Seq for a whole-genome view of the acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to anoxic conditions imposed simultaneously with transfer to the dark. Nearly 1.4 × 10(3) genes were affected by hypoxia. Comparing transcript profiles from early (hypoxic) with those from late (anoxic) time points indicated that cells activate oxidative energy generation pathways before employing fermentation. Probable substrates include amino acids and fatty acids (FAs). Lipid profiling of the C. reinhardtii cells revealed that they degraded FAs but also accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs). In contrast with N-deprived cells, the TAGs in hypoxic cells were enriched in desaturated FAs, suggesting a distinct pathway for TAG accumulation. To distinguish transcriptional responses dependent on COPPER RESPONSE REGULATOR1 (CRR1), which is also involved in hypoxic gene regulation, we compared the transcriptomes of crr1 mutants and complemented strains. In crr1 mutants, ∼40 genes were aberrantly regulated, reaffirming the importance of CRR1 for the hypoxic response, but indicating also the contribution of additional signaling strategies to account for the remaining differentially regulated transcripts. Based on transcript patterns and previous results, we conclude that nitric oxide-dependent signaling cascades operate in anoxic C. reinhardtii cells.The Plant Cell 09/2013; DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.115741 · 9.58 Impact Factor