Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Implant Placement in Atrophic Posterior Mandible

ILAPEO-Latin American Institute of Dental Research and Education, Curitiba, Paraná.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery (Impact Factor: 0.68). 07/2012; 23(4):e347-9. DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31825655d1
Source: PubMed


The aims of this article were to describe the surgical technique of the inferior alveolar nerve lateralization followed by implant installation by means of a clinical report and also to discuss the importance of an adequate surgical and prosthetic planning for atrophic posterior mandible rehabilitation.

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Available from: Fernanda Faot, Jan 12, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Inferior alveolar nerve transposition (IANT) is a surgical technique used in implantoprosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic lower jaw which has not been well embraced because of the high risk of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). There are cases in which this method is essential to obtain good morphologic and functional rebalancing of the jaw. In this paper, the authors present their experience with IANT, analyzing the various situations in which IANT is the only surgical preprosthetic option. Methods. Between 2003 and 2011, 35 patients underwent surgical IANT at our center. Thermal and physical sensitivity were evaluated in each patient during follow-up. The follow-up ranged from 14 to 101 months. Results and Conclusion. Based on our experience, absolute indications of IANT are as follows: (1) class IV, V, or VI of Cawood and Howell with extrusion of the antagonist tooth and reduced prosthetic free space; (2) class V or VI of Cawood and Howell with presence of interforaminal teeth; (3) class V or VI of Cawood and Howell if patient desires fast implantoprosthetic rehabilitation with predictable outcomes; (4) class VI of Cawood and Howell when mandibular height increase with inlay grafts is advisable.
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    ABSTRACT: Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning has been used widely in recent years as an alternative approach for dental implant placement in the atrophic posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to answer the question: What are the complications associated with IAN repositioning? A systematic literature review performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, using the PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases, identified a total of 116 articles related to this technique. Of those articles, 24 were included in the final review. Lateralization was the chosen technique in seven studies, transposition in 15 studies, and two studies reported both techniques. The longest follow-up period was 49.1 months and the shortest 6 months. Of the patients who underwent lateralization, 95.9% initially showed a neurosensory disturbance, and the condition remained at the end of the study for 3.4% of those patients. With regard to the patients who underwent transposition, neurosensory alterations were observed in 58.9% of patients initially, and the condition remained for 22.1% of those affected at the end of the study. Only one study found no neurosensory disturbance at any time. More data consolidation is necessary to determine scientifically if, which, and when the IAN repositioning technique can be recommended.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this first part of a two-part series was to review the literature concerning the indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and surgical techniques of the lateralization and transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve, followed by the placement of an implant in an edentulous atrophic posterior mandible. A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed and PMC database, academic sites and books. The articles were searched from January 1997 to July 2014 and comprised English-language articles that included adult patients between 18 and 80 years old with minimal residual bone above the mandibular canal who had undergone inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning with a minimum 6 months of follow-up. A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Nine were related to IAN transposition, 4 to IAN lateralization and 3 to both transposition and lateralization. Implant treatment results and complications were presented. Inferior alveolar nerve lateralization and transposition in combination with the installation of dental implants is sometimes the only possible procedure to help patients to obtain a fixed prosthesis, in edentulous atrophic posterior mandibles. With careful pre-operative surgical and prosthetic planning, imaging, and extremely precise surgical technique, this procedure can be successfully used for implant placement in edentulous posterior mandibular segments.
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