Isofraxidin (IF) is a Coumarin compound that can be isolated from medicinal plants, such as Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.). Nakai is widely used in Asian countries for the treatment of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour action. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of IF on inflammation and nociception. In addition, we investigated a potential novel mechanism to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of IF. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, LPS-induced mouse endotoxic shock, acetic acid-induced mice writhing and formalin-induced mouse pain models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of IF. In vitro, we examined the effects of IF inhibition on TNF-α production and the regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation activity in LPS-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages. Our results demonstrated that IF can significantly decrease xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced pain. Moreover, IF greatly inhibited the production of TNF-α in the serum of LPS-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages, and it decreased phospho-p38 and ERK1/2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that IF possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities that may be mediated through the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2.
"Carrageenan-induced paw edema is another model which is widely employed for screening the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs (10,11). The acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenan injection involves two phases (12). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pharyngitis is characterized by an inflammation of the mucous membranes in the pharynx. Yanshu spraying agent was prepared according to the traditional Chinese formulation for the treatment of acute pharyngitis. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Yanshu in xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats by measuring the degree of edema in the animal models. The histopathology and the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hind paws of the carrageenan-treated rats were also analyzed. The results showed that Yanshu significantly reduced ear edema in the mice and paw edema in the rats. Furthermore, treatment with Yanshu also reduced the number of inflammatory cells in tissue and decreased the production of PGE2 and COX-2. These results suggest that Yanshu possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity mediated by the inhibition of COX-2 expression which, in turn, downregulates the inflammatory mediator PGE2.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2013; 5(1):73-76. DOI:10.3892/etm.2012.761 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Icaritin, an intestinal metabolite of prenylflavonoids from Herba Epimedii, has been known to regulate many cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of icaritin on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and zymosan induced peritonitis model in vivo. The release of Nitric oxide (NO) was measured by a Griess reagent system. The phagocytosis, the expression of CD69, the production of inflammatory cytokines and the leukocytes numbers were determined by flow cytometry. The Ca(2+) influx was recorded by confocal microscopy. The phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was determined by Western blot. The results showed that icaritin significantly inhibited the NO, IL-6, IL-10 TNF-α, and MCP-1 production both in vitro and in vivo. Icaritin efficiently diminished the uptake of nonopsonized pHrodo™-labeled Escherichia coli bacteria on the LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, icaritin significantly inhibited the expression of CD69 on CD11b(+) macrophages. Icaritin pretreatment significantly inhibited the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by LPS. Furthermore, icaritin markedly decreased phospho-p38 and JNK protein expression in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vivo study, it was also observed that icaritin prolonged survival of peritonitis mice, and inhibited massive leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that icaritin possesses significant anti-inflammatory effects that may be mediated through the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of p38 and JNK.
International immunopharmacology 04/2013; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2013.03.025 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Mosla scabra (Thunb.) C.Y. Wu, belonging to the Labiatae family, is a tomentose and aromatic plant, which is widely used as an antipyretic and antiviral drug for pulmonary diseases and famous for its efficiency in treating colds, fever, pneumonia and chronic bronchitis. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of Mosla scabra flavonoids (MF) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.
Materials and methods:
Mice were orally administrated with MF once (30 mg/kg or 90 mg/kg) 1 h before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analyses 6 h after LPS challenge.
Pretreatment with MF could decrease significantly lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio, lower myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and total protein concentrations in the BALF, reduce serum levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in ALI model. Additionally, MF attenuated lung histopathological changes and significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and translocation of NF-κB p65.
These results showed MF significantly attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury and production of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB activation, indicating it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2013; 148(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.020 · 3.00 Impact Factor
Santosh S. Undare, Navnath J. Valekar, Ajinkya A. Patravale, Dattatraya K. Jamale, Sunil S. Vibhute, Laxman S. Walekar, Govind B. Kolekar, M. B. Deshmukh, Prashant V. Anbhule
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