Type II NKT cells facilitate Alum-sensing and humoral immunity.
ABSTRACT Alum-based adjuvants facilitate vaccine-driven humoral immunity, but their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that lack of type II NKT cells is associated with intact, mature B cells but dampened humoral immunity following immunization with Alum-adsorbed T-dependent antigen. Type II NKT cells facilitated production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and antibody by LN and splenocyte cultures following Alum/antigen administration in vivo and antigen restimulation in vitro. Addition of IL-4 and IL-5 to type II NKT-deficient cultures restored in vitro antibody production. Intracellular staining revealed that Alum-primed type II NKT cells coordinated IL-4 secretion by T cells. Alum did not significantly affect CD1d expression in vivo, but addition of CD1d-blocking mAb diminished cytokine production and in vitro antibody production. Type II NKT cells therefore function as part of the Alum-sensing apparatus and in a CD1d-dependent manner, facilitate T(H)2-driven humoral immunity. This may have important consequences for understanding the mechanism of action of Alum-containing vaccines.
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ABSTRACT: Negative immunoregulation is a major barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy. The NKT cell is known to be one such regulator. In this study we explored the roles of and interaction between the classical type I NKT cell and the poorly understood type II NKT cell in the regulation of tumor immunity. Selective stimulation of type II NKT cells suppressed immunosurveillance, whereas stimulation of type I NKT cells protected against tumor growth even when responses were relatively skewed toward Th2 cytokines. When both were stimulated simultaneously, type II NKT cells appeared to suppress the activation in vitro and protective effect in vivo of type I NKT cells. In the absence of type I, suppression by type II NKT cells increased, suggesting that type I cells reduce the suppressive effect of type II NKT cells. Thus, in tumor immunity type I and type II NKT cells have opposite and counteractive roles and define a new immunoregulatory axis. Alteration of the balance between the protective type I and the suppressive type II NKT cell may be exploited for therapeutic intervention in cancer.The Journal of Immunology 11/2007; 179(8):5126-36. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes recognizing CD1d-restricted glycolipid antigens, such as alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGC). We assessed whether iNKT cells help B lymphocyte responses and found that mice immunized with proteins and alphaGC develop antibody titers 1-2 logs higher than those induced by proteins alone. Activation of iNKT cells enhances protection against infections such as influenza and elicits higher frequencies of memory B cells and higher antibody responses to booster immunizations. Protein vaccination with alphaGC, but not with conventional adjuvants, elicits IgG responses in mice lacking MHC class II molecules, demonstrating that iNKT cells can substitute for CD4(+) T cell help to B cells. Interestingly, the decay of circulating antibodies is faster in mice lacking iNKT cells. These findings point to a homeostatic role for iNKT cells on critical features of the antibody response such as immunity and B cell memory.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(10):3984-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Each of the human CD1 proteins takes a different route through secretory and endocytic compartments before finally arriving at the cell surface, where these proteins present glycolipid antigens to T cells. Recent studies have shown that adaptor-protein complexes and CD1-associated chaperones control not only CD1 trafficking, but also the development and activation of CD1-restricted T cells. This indicates that CD1 proteins, similar to MHC class I and II molecules, selectively acquire certain antigens in distinct cellular subcompartments. Here, we summarize evidence supporting the hypothesis that CD1 proteins use separate, but parallel, pathways to survey endosomal compartments differentially for lipid antigens.Nature reviews. Immunology 02/2003; 3(1):11-22. · 33.13 Impact Factor