High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Elucidates Metabonate (False Metabolite) Formation from Alkylamine Drugs during In Vitro Metabolite Profiling.
ABSTRACT In vitro metabolite profiling and characterization experiments are widely employed in early drug development to support safety studies. Samples from incubations of investigational drugs with liver microsomes or hepatocytes are commonly analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for detection and structural elucidation of metabolites. Advanced mass spectrometers with accurate mass capabilities are becoming increasingly popular for characterization of drugs and metabolites, spurring changes in the routine workflows applied. In the present study, using a generic full-scan high-resolution data acquisition approach with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with postacquisition data mining, we detected and characterized metabonates (false metabolites) in microsomal incubations of several alkylamine drugs. If a targeted approach to mass spectrometric detection (without full-scan acquisition and appropriate data mining) were employed, the metabonates may not have been detected, hence their formation underappreciated. In the absence of accurate mass data, the metabonate formation would have been incorrectly characterized because the detected metabonates manifested as direct cyanide-trapped conjugates or as cyanide-trapped metabolites formed from the parent drugs by the addition of 14 Da, the mass shift commonly associated with oxidation to yield a carbonyl. This study demonstrates that high-resolution mass spectrometry and the associated workflow is very useful for the detection and characterization of unpredicted sample components and that accurate mass data were critical to assignment of the correct metabonate structures. In addition, for drugs containing an alkylamine moiety, the results suggest that multiple negative controls and chemical trapping agents may be necessary to correctly interpret the results of in vitro experiments.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently discovered ionization methods for use in mass spectrometry (MS), are widely applicable to biological materials, robust, and easy to automate. Among these, matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) is astonishing in that ionization of low and high-mass compounds are converted to gas-phase ions with charge states similar to electrospray ionization simply by exposing a matrix:analyte mixture to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Using the matrix compound, 3-nitrobenzonitrile, abundant ions are produced at room temperature without the need of high voltage or a laser. Here we discuss chemical analyses advances using MAIV combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) real time separation, high resolution MS, and mass selected and non-mass selected MS/MS providing rapid analyte characterization. Drugs, their metabolites, lipids, peptides, and proteins can be ionized simultaneously from a variety of different biological matrixes such as urine, plasma, whole blood, and tissue. These complex mixtures are best characterized using a separation step, which is obtained nearly instantaneously with IMS, and together with direct ionization and MS or MS/MS provides a fast analysis method that has considerable potential for non-targeted clinical analyses.International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry 16(2).