Hemodynamic, Hormonal, and Renal Effects of (Pro)Renin Receptor Blockade in Experimental Heart Failure

Christchurch Heart Institute, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Circulation Heart Failure (Impact Factor: 5.89). 07/2012; 5(5):645-52. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967059
Source: PubMed


The (pro)renin receptor (P)RR is implicated in blood pressure regulation and the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The effects of (P)RR blockade in HF have not been previously investigated.

Methods and results:
Eight sheep received on 2 separate days a vehicle control and incremental intravenous boluses of a (P)RR antagonist, ovine handle region peptide (HRP) (1, 5, and 25 mg at 90-minute intervals), both before (normal) and after induction of HF by rapid left ventricular pacing. In normal sheep, HRP reduced heart rate (P<0.001) and hematocrit (P=0.019) compared with time-matched control data, without significantly affecting any other hemodynamic, hormonal, or renal variables. In sheep with HF, HRP treatment induced progressive falls in mean arterial pressure (P<0.001) in association with decreases in left atrial pressure (P<0.001), peripheral resistance (P=0.014), and hematocrit (P<0.001). Cardiac contractility tended to decline (P=0.096), whereas cardiac output was unaltered. HRP administration produced a dose-dependent decrease in plasma renin activity (P=0.004), with similar trends observed for plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone (P=0.093 and P=0.088, respectively). Circulating natriuretic peptides, endothelin-1, and catecholamine levels were unchanged. HRP also induced a reduction in plasma sodium concentrations relative to control (P=0.024), a natriuresis (P=0.046), and a tendency for creatinine excretion and clearance to improve.

(P)RR antagonism in experimental HF resulted in cardiovascular and renal benefits in association with inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These findings suggest that (P)RR contributes to pressure/volume regulation in HF and identifies the receptor as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.

6 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This prospective single-center study aimed to determine the responsiveness and diagnostic performance of continuous cardiac output (CCO) monitors based on pulse contour analysis compared with invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) during predefined periods of acute circulatory deterioration in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The ability of calibrated (CCOCAL) and self-calibrated (CCOAUTOCAL) pulse contour analysis to detect the hemodynamic response to 37 episodes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty enabled by rapid ventricular pacing was quantified in 13 patients undergoing TAVI. A "low" and a "high" cut-off limit were predefined as a 15 or 25 % decrease from baseline respectively. We found no significant differences between CCOCAL and MAP regarding mean response time [low cut-off: 8.6 (7.1-10.5) vs. 8.9 (7.3-10.8) s, p = 0.76; high cut-off: 11.4 (9.7-13.5) vs. 12.6 (10.7-14.9) s, p = 0.32] or diagnostic performance [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC): 0.99 (0.98-1.0) vs. 1.0 (0.99-1.0), p = 0.46]. But CCOCAL had a significantly higher amplitude response [95.0 (88.7-98.8) % decrease from baseline] than MAP [41.2 (30.0-52.9) %, p < 0.001]. CCOAUTOCAL had a significantly lower AUC [0.83 (0.73-0.93), p < 0.001] than MAP. Moreover, CCOCAL detected hemodynamic recovery significantly earlier than MAP. In conclusion, CCOCAL and MAP provided equivalent responsiveness and diagnostic performance to detect acute circulatory depression, whereas CCOAUTOCAL appeared to be less appropriate. In contrast to CCOCAL the amplitude response of MAP was poor. Consequently even small response amplitudes of MAP could indicate severe decreases in CO.
    Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 10/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1007/s10877-014-9630-2 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Hypertension 11/2014; 65(2). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04532 · 6.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although counter-regulation between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in heart failure (HF) has been suggested, whether the regulation is preserved in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to determine: (1) the relationship between RAAS activation and clinical outcomes in ADHF patients, and (2) the relationships between plasma BNP levels and degrees of activation in RAAS factors. This study included ADHF patients (n = 103, NYHA3-4, plasma BNP > 200 pg/ml). We studied the predictability of RAAS factors for cardiovascular events and the relationships between plasma BNP levels and the degrees of activation in RAAS factors, which were evaluated by plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone concentration (PAC). PRA was a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) events over 1 year, even after accounting for plasma BNP levels (hazard ratio (HR): 1.04, CI [1.02-1.06], p < 0.01) and medication such as RAAS blockers (HR: 1.03, CI [1.01-1.05], p < 0.01), whereas PAC was borderline-significant (univariate analysis, p = 0.06). Cut-off value of PRA (5.3 ng/ml/h) was determined by AUC curve. Of the enrolled patients, higher PRA was found in 40 % of them. Although no correlation between the plasma BNP levels and PRA was found (p = 0.36), after adjusting for hemodynamic parameters, eGFR and medication, a correlation was found between them (p = 0.01). Elevated RAAS factors were found in a substantial number of ADHF patients with high plasma BNP levels in the association with hemodynamic state, which predicts poor clinical outcomes. The measurements of RAAS factors help to stratify ADHF patients at risk for further CV events.
    Heart and Vessels 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00380-015-0688-7 · 2.07 Impact Factor