Identification of SPLUNC1's ENaC-inhibitory domain yields novel strategies to treat sodium hyperabsorption in cystic fibrosis airways
ABSTRACT The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is responsible for Na(+) and fluid absorption across colon, kidney, and airway epithelia. We have previously identified SPLUNC1 as an autocrine inhibitor of ENaC. We have now located the ENaC inhibitory domain of SPLUNC1 to SPLUNC1's N terminus, and a peptide corresponding to this domain, G22-A39, inhibited ENaC activity to a similar degree as full-length SPLUNC1 (∼2.5 fold). However, G22-A39 had no effect on the structurally related acid-sensing ion channels, indicating specificity for ENaC. G22-A39 preferentially bound to the β-ENaC subunit in a glycosylation-dependent manner. ENaC hyperactivity is contributory to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Addition of G22-A39 to CF human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs) resulted in an increase in airway surface liquid height from 4.2 ± 0.6 to 7.9 ± 0.6 μm, comparable to heights seen in normal HBECs, even in the presence of neutrophil elastase. Our data also indicate that the ENaC inhibitory domain of SPLUNC1 may be cleaved away from the main molecule by neutrophil elastase, which suggests that it may still be active during inflammation or neutrophilia. Furthermore, the robust inhibition of ENaC by the G22-A39 peptide suggests that this peptide may be suitable for treating CF lung disease.-Hobbs, C. A., Blanchard, M. G., Kellenberger, S., Bencharit, S., Cao, R., Kesimer, M., Walton, W. G., Redinbo, M. R., Stutts, M. J., Tarran, R. Identification of SPLUNC1's ENaC-inhibitory domain yields novel strategies to treat sodium hyperabsorption in cystic fibrosis airways.
SourceAvailable from: Fangkun Ning[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The short palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a member of the palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC) family, also known as bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing protein, family A, member 1 (BPIFA1). SPLUNC1 is an abundant protein in human airways, but its function remains poorly understood. The lipid ligands of SPLUNC1 as well as other PLUNC family members are largely unknown, although some reports provide evidence that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could be a lipid ligand. Unlike previous hypotheses, we found significant structural differences between SPLUNC1 and BPI. Recombinant SPLUNC1 produced in HEK 293 cells harbored several molecular species of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine as its ligands. Significantly, in vitro lipid-binding studies failed to demonstrate interactions between SPLUNC1 and LPS, lipoteichoic acid, or polymyxin B. Instead, one of the major and most important pulmonary surfactant phospholipids, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), bound to SPLUNC1 with high affinity and specificity. We found that SPLUNC1 could be the first protein receptor for DPPC. These discoveries provide insight into the specific determinants governing the interaction between SPLUNC1 and lipids and also shed light on novel functions that SPLUNC1 and other PLUNC family members perform in host defense.-Ning, F., Wang, C., Berry, K. Z., Kandasamy, P., Liu, H., Murphy, R. C., Voelker, D. R., Nho, C. W., Pan, C.-H., Dai, S., Niu, L., Chu, H-W., Zhang, G. Structural characterization of the pulmonary innate immune protein SPLUNC1 and identification of lipid ligands.The FASEB Journal 09/2014; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-259291 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are all pulmonary diseases which are characterized by chronic inflammation and an increase in mucus production. Excess mucus in the airways correlates with pathophysiology such as a decline in lung function and prolonged bacterial infections. New drugs to treat these chronic respiratory diseases are currently being developed and include both inhaled and orally administered compounds. Whilst oral drugs may be easier to administer, they are more prone to side-effects due to higher bioavailability. Inhaled compounds may show reduced bioavailability, but face their own unique challenges. For example, thick mucus in the respiratory tracts of asthma, CF and COPD patients can act as a physical barrier that impedes drug delivery. Mucus also contains a high number of enzymes and proteases that may degrade compounds before they reach their site of action. Furthermore, some classes of drugs are rapidly absorbed across the respiratory epithelia into systemic circulation, which may limit their duration of action and/or cause off-target effects. This review discusses some of the different treatment options that are currently available and the considerations that need to be taken into account to produce new therapies for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases.03/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.4172/2329-6887.1000118
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ABSTRACT: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are a significant cause of mortality of COPD patients, and pose a huge burden on healthcare. One of the major causes of AECOPD is airway bacterial (e.g. nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) infection. However, the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections during AECOPD remain poorly understood. As neutrophilic inflammation including increased release of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a salient feature of AECOPD, we hypothesized that HNE impairs airway epithelial defense against NTHi by degrading airway epithelial host defense proteins such as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1). METHODOLOGYMAIN RESULTS: Recombinant human SPLUNC1 protein was incubated with HNE to confirm SPLUNC1 degradation by HNE. To determine if HNE-mediated impairment of host defense against NTHi was SPLUNC1-dependent, SPLUNC1 protein was added to HNE-treated primary normal human airway epithelial cells. The in vivo function of SPLUNC1 in NTHi defense was investigated by infecting SPLUNC1 knockout and wild-type mice intranasally with NTHi. We found that: (1) HNE directly increased NTHi load in human airway epithelial cells; (2) HNE degraded human SPLUNC1 protein; (3) Recombinant SPLUNC1 protein reduced NTHi levels in HNE-treated human airway epithelial cells; (4) NTHi levels in lungs of SPLUNC1 knockout mice were increased compared to wild-type mice; and (5) SPLUNC1 was reduced in lungs of COPD patients. Our findings suggest that SPLUNC1 degradation by neutrophil elastase may increase airway susceptibility to bacterial infections. SPLUNC1 therapy likely attenuates bacterial infections during AECOPD.PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64689. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064689 · 3.53 Impact Factor