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    ABSTRACT: Amiodarone is an effective class III antiarrhythmic drug, however, the pulmonary toxicity is one of the most life-threatening complications of its use. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity of amiodarone. In cultured human lung epithelial cells A549, amiodarone caused cell injury characterized by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, ATP depletion, enhanced propidium iodide (PI) uptake and increase in the number of Annexin-V positive cells, although the population of PI-stained cells appeared earlier and was not identical to that of Annexin-V stained cells, suggesting that the apoptosis and necrosis appeared in different cells. The apoptosis was accompanied with the activation of caspase-2, -3 and -8 but not caspase-9, and reversed by these caspase inhibitors. However, the caspase inhibitors had no influence on mitochondrial membrane potential or PI uptake after exposure of A549 cells to amiodarone. In contrast, mitochondrial cofactors such as L-carnitine and acetyl-L: -carnitine attenuated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, abrogated cellular ATP depletion and reversed PI uptake without affecting Annexin-V positive cells. These finding suggest that different intracellular events operate to cause apoptosis and necrosis after exposure of pulmonary epithelial cells to amiodarone.
    Apoptosis 05/2008; 13(4):543-52. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model of the alveolar epithelium. Typical ATP-depletion compounds caused an approximately 30% increase in the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells, although these effects were less than those in Caco-2 cells. Triiodothyronine (T(3)), which exhibited an inhibitory effect on DEA efflux in Caco-2 cells, did not affect the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells. On the other hand, 100 microM AMD caused an approximately 200% increase in DEA content in A549 cells, although AMD accumulation was not affected by 100 microM DEA. Since the reducing effect of AMD on cellular ATP levels and that of FCCP were similar, the mechanism by which DEA accumulation is increased by AMD might be different from the ATP-dependent DEA efflux mechanism. The decrease in cell viability by DEA in the presence of AMD (IC(50) value of DEA for A549 cell viability: 25.4+/-2.4 microM) was more pronounced than that by DEA alone (IC(50) value: 11.5+/-3.0 microM). This further DEA accumulation by AMD might be a factor responsible for the greater accumulation of DEA than that of AMD in the lung in long-term AMD-treated patients.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 08/2008; 31(7):1449-52. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog but differs structurally from amiodarone in that the iodine moiety was removed and a methane-sulfonyl group was added. These modifications reduced thyroid and other end-organ adverse effects and makes dronedarone less lipophilic, shortening its half-life. Dronedarone has been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFl) recurrences in several multi-center trials. In addition to its rhythm control properties, dronedarone has rate control properties and slows the ventricular response during AF. Dronedarone is approved in Europe for rhythm and rate control indications. In patients with decompensated heart failure, dronedarone treatment increased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. However, when dronedarone was used in elderly high risk AF/AFl patients excluding such high risk heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly reduced and the drug was approved in the USA for this indication in 2009 by the Food and Drug Administration. Updated guidelines suggest dronedarone as a front-line antiarrhythmic in many patients with AF/Fl but caution that the drug should not be used in patients with advanced heart failure. In addition, the recent results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF.
    Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology. 01/2011; 5:103-19.