Respiratory Infection and the Impact of Pulmonary Immunity on Lung Health and Disease
ABSTRACT Acute lower respiratory tract infection is responsible for an inordinate disease burden. Pulmonary immunity determines the outcomes of these infections. The innate and adaptive immune responses to microbes in the lung are critical to maintaining a healthy respiratory system and to preventing pulmonary disease. In addition to balancing antimicrobial defense against the risk of lung injury during the immediate infection, the shaping of pulmonary immunity by respiratory infection contributes to the pathophysiology of many and even perhaps most chronic pulmonary diseases. This Perspective aims to communicate 2 inter-connected points. First, tremendous morbidity and mortality result from inadequate, misguided, or excessive pulmonary immunity. Second, our understanding of pulmonary immunity is at an exciting stage of rapid developments and discoveries, but many questions remain. Further advances in pulmonary immunity and elucidation of the cellular and molecular responses to microbes in the lung are needed in order to develop novel approaches to predicting, preventing, and curing respiratory disease.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2014; 190(11):1207-9. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201410-1939ED · 11.99 Impact Factor
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2014; 190(11):1206-7. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201410-1919ED · 11.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI) is a multirecognition receptor that regulates cholesterol trafficking and cardiovascular inflammation. Although it is expressed by neutrophils (PMNs) and lung-resident cells, no role for SR-BI has been defined in pulmonary immunity. Herein, we report that, compared with SR-BI(+/+) counterparts, SR-BI(-/-) mice suffer markedly increased mortality during bacterial pneumonia associated with higher bacterial burden in the lung and blood, deficient induction of the stress glucocorticoid corticosterone, higher serum cytokines, and increased organ injury. SR-BI(-/-) mice had significantly increased PMN recruitment and cytokine production in the infected airspace. This was associated with defective hematopoietic cell-dependent clearance of lipopolysaccharide from the airspace and increased cytokine production by SR-BI(-/-) macrophages. Corticosterone replacement normalized alveolar neutrophilia but not alveolar cytokines, bacterial burden, or mortality, suggesting that adrenal insufficiency derepresses PMN trafficking to the SR-BI(-/-) airway in a cytokine-independent manner. Despite enhanced alveolar neutrophilia, SR-BI(-/-) mice displayed impaired phagocytic killing. Bone marrow chimeras revealed this defect to be independent of the dyslipidemia and adrenal insufficiency of SR-BI(-/-) mice. During infection, SR-BI(-/-) PMNs displayed deficient oxidant production and CD11b externalization, and increased surface L-selectin, suggesting defective activation. Taken together, SR-BI coordinates several steps in the integrated neutrophilic host defense response to pneumonia.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.88.Mucosal Immunology 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/mi.2014.88 · 7.54 Impact Factor