Brain-selective kinase 2 (BRSK2) phosphorylation on PCTAIRE1 negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells.
ABSTRACT Brain-selective kinase 2 (BRSK2) has been shown to play an essential role in neuronal polarization. In the present study, we show that BRSK2 is also abundantly expressed in pancreatic islets and MIN6 β-cell line. Yeast two-hybrid screening, GST fusion protein pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays reveal that BRSK2 interacts with CDK-related protein kinase PCTAIRE1, a kinase involved in neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter release. In MIN6 cells, BRSK2 co-localizes with PCTAIRE1 in the cytoplasm and phosphorylates one of its serine residues, Ser-12. Phosphorylation of PCTAIRE1 by BRSK2 reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in MIN6 cells. Conversely, knockdown of BRSK2 by siRNA increases serum insulin levels in mice. Our results reveal a novel function of BRSK2 in the regulation of GSIS in β-cells via a PCTAIRE1-dependent mechanism and suggest that BRSK2 is an attractive target for developing novel diabetic drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) removes improperly-folded proteins from the ER membrane into the cytosol where they undergo proteasomal degradation. Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 mediates in the extraction of ERAD substrates from the ER. BRSK2 (also known as SAD-A), a serine/threonine kinase of the AMP-activated protein kinase family affected VCP/p97 activity in ERAD. In addition, BRSK2 interacted with VCP/p97 via three of the four functional domains of VCP/p97. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that BRSK2 and VCP/p97 were co-localized and also that knockdown of endogenous BRSK2 induced increased levels of CD3δ, a substrate in ERAD for VCP/p97. Thus, BRSK2 might affect the activity of VCP/p97 in ERAD.Biotechnology Letters 08/2013; 35(12). DOI:10.1007/s10529-013-1295-2 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies of brain-specific kinase 2 (BRSK2), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, and its homologs suggest that they are multifunctional regulators of cell-cycle progression. BRSK2, which contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, is polyubiquitinated in cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms and exact biological function of BRSK2 remain unclear. Herein, we show that BRSK2 co-localizes with the centrosomes during mitosis. We also demonstrate that BRSK2 protein levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, peaking during mitosis and declining in G1 phase. Furthermore, Cdh1, rather than Cdc20, promotes the degradation of BRSK2 in vivo. Consistent with this finding, knock-down of endogenous Cdh1 blocks BRSK2 degradation during the G1 phase. The conserved KEN box of BRSK2 is required for anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1))-dependent degradation. Additionally, overexpression of either BRSK2(WT) or BRSK2(ΔKEN) increases the percentage of cells in G2/M. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that BRSK2 regulates cell-cycle progression controlled by APC/C(Cdh1) through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45932. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045932 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extrinsic cues activate intrinsic signaling mechanisms to pattern neuronal shape and connectivity. We showed previously that three cytoplasmic Ser/Thr kinases, LKB1, SAD-A, and SAD-B, control early axon-dendrite polarization in forebrain neurons. Here, we assess their role in other neuronal types. We found that all three kinases are dispensable for axon formation outside of the cortex but that SAD kinases are required for formation of central axonal arbors by subsets of sensory neurons. The requirement for SAD kinases is most prominent in NT-3 dependent neurons. SAD kinases transduce NT-3 signals in two ways through distinct pathways. First, sustained NT-3/TrkC signaling increases SAD protein levels. Second, short-duration NT-3/TrkC signals transiently activate SADs by inducing dephosphorylation of C-terminal domains, thereby allowing activating phosphorylation of the kinase domain. We propose that SAD kinases integrate long- and short-duration signals from extrinsic cues to sculpt axon arbors within the CNS.Neuron 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.05.017 · 15.98 Impact Factor