Chondrogenic Differentiation in vitro of Murine Two-Factor Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells is Comparable to Murine Embryonic Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells via embryoid bodies has been established as an appropriate model to study the development of various cell types in vitro. Here, we show that murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, reprogrammed by exogenous expression of the two transcription factors Oct4 and Klf4 (2F OK iPS), differentiate into chondrocytes in vitro characterized by the appearance of Alcian blue-stained nodules and the expression of cartilage-associated genes and proteins. Quantitatively, the chondrogenic differentiation potential of 2F OK iPS and ES cells was found to be similar. Further, we demonstrate the induction of chondrogenic iPS cell differentiation by certain members of the transforming growth factor-β family (BMP-2, TGF-β(1)). The number of Alcian blue-positive nodules and the expression of the cartilage marker molecule collagen type II increased after application of BMP-2, whereas simultaneous treatment with both BMP-2 and TGF-β(1) showed no significant effect on gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenesis proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors. They are expressed in retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and sclera and serve as a regulator in the growth and development of the eye. This article reviewed the chondrogenic potency of the sclera, biochemical and pathological changes of myopic scleral tissue and the differentiation of chondrogenesis by BMP-2. We proposed the hypothesis that BMP-2 can regulate differentiate of scleral fibroblasts and affect the development of myopia.International Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 7(1):152-156. · 0.12 Impact Factor