Ketamine does not impair heat tolerance in rats.
ABSTRACT Exposure to organophosphorus compounds, either pesticides or chemical warfare agents such as soman or sarin, represents a major health problem. Organophosphorus poisoning may induce seizures, status epilepticus and even brain lesions if untreated. Ketamine, an antagonist of glutamatergic receptors, was recently proved to be effective in combination with atropine sulfate as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant in mice and guinea pigs exposed to soman. Organophosphorus exposure may also occur in conditions of contemporary heat exposure. Since both MK-801, a more potent glutamatergic antagonist than ketamine, and atropine sulfate are detrimental for thermoregulation, we evaluated the pathophysiological consequences of ketamine/atropine combinations in a hot environment. Male wistar rats were exposed to 38°C ambient temperature and treated with atropine sulfate and/or ketamine (anesthetic and subanesthetic doses). The abdominal temperature and spontaneous locomotor activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. At the end of heat exposure, blood chemistry and the mRNA expression of some specific genes in the brain were assessed. Unlike MK-801, ketamine did not induce any deleterious effect on thermoregulation in rats. Conversely, atropine sulfate led to heatstroke and depressed the heat-induced blood corticosterone increase. Furthermore, it induced a dramatic increase in Hsp70 and c-Fos mRNA levels and a decrease in IκBα mRNA expression, both suggesting brain aggression. When combined with the anesthetic dose of ketamine, some of the atropine-induced metabolic disturbances were modified. In conclusion, ketamine can be used in hot environment and may even limit some of the biological alterations induced by atropine sulfate in these conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus nerve agents (NA), potent irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors, could induce severe seizures, status epilepticus (SE), seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) and lethality. Despite the lack of data in the case of NA, clinical evidences suggest that SE survivors could suffer from neurological/cognitive deficits and impairments such as spontaneous recurrent seizures (epilepsy) after a latent period of epileptogenesis. It is beyond doubt that an effective and quick management of the initial seizures and prevention of SRBD are critical to prevent these long-term consequences, explaining why most experimental data are focusing on the 5-40min post-dosing time frame. However, in field conditions, treatment may be delayed and with the exception of NMDA receptor antagonists, currently no drug provides protection (against lethality, seizures, SRBD and neurological consequences) when seizures are left unabated for one hour or more. Ketamine (KET) is the only NMDA antagonist licensed as an injectable drug in different countries and remains an anesthetic of choice in some difficult field conditions. In this short review paper, after a presentation of some of the key points of the pathophysiology of NA-induced SE and a quick survey of the potential therapeutic avenues in the context of delayed treatment of NA-induced SE, we will review the recent data we obtained showing that KET, in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), with or without a benzodiazepine, considerably reduces soman-induced neuroinflammation, provides neuroprotection, histologically and functionally, and also positively modify soman-induced changes in brain metabolism. Finally, we will also mention some results from safety studies including those bringing evidence that, at difference with MK-801, KET does not impair thermoregulation and even seems to reduce AS-induced heat stress. All in all, KET, in combination, appears a good candidate for the out-of-hospital treatment of severe NA-induced SE.Chemico-biological interactions 10/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor