Selective Hepatic Insulin Resistance, VLDL Overproduction, and Hypertriglyceridemia
ABSTRACT Insulin plays a central role in regulating energy metabolism, including hepatic transport of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated triglyceride. Hepatic hypersecretion of VLDL and consequent hypertriglyceridemia leads to lower circulating high-density lipoprotein levels and generation of small dense low-density lipoproteins characteristic of the dyslipidemia commonly observed in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiological fluctuations of insulin modulate VLDL secretion, and insulin inhibition of VLDL secretion upon feeding may be the first pathway to become resistant in obesity that leads to VLDL hypersecretion. This review summarizes the role of insulin-related signaling pathways that determine hepatic VLDL production. Disruption in signaling pathways that reduce generation of the second messenger phosphatidylinositide (3,4,5) triphosphate downstream of activated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase underlies the development of VLDL hypersecretion. As insulin resistance progresses, a number of pathways are altered that further augment VLDL hypersecretion, including hepatic inflammatory pathways. Insulin plays a complex role in regulating glucose metabolism, and it is not surprising that the role of insulin in VLDL and lipid metabolism will prove equally complex.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term fructose consumption has been shown to evoke leptin resistance, to elevate triglyceride levels and to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Autophagy has been suggested to function in processes such as lipid storage in adipose tissue and inflammation in liver. Autophagy and the leptin system have also been suggested to regulate each other. This study aimed to identify the changes caused by fetal undernourishment and postnatal fructose diet in the gene expression of leptin, its receptors (LEPR-a, LEPR-b, LEPR-c, LEPR-e and LEPR-f) and autophagy genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of adult male rats in order to clarify the mechanism behind the metabolic alterations. The data clearly revealed that the long-term postnatal fructose diet decreased leptin levels (p < 0.001), LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.011) and LEPR-f (p = 0.005), as well as SOCS3 (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.006), ATG7 (p < 0.001), MAP1LC3β (p < 0.001) and LAMP2 (p = 0.004) mRNA expression in WAT. Furthermore, LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.001) and LEPR-f (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.010), ATG7 (p = 0.024), MAP1LC3β (p = 0.003) and LAMP2 (p < 0.001) mRNA expression in the liver was increased in fructose-fed rats. In addition, the LEPR expression in liver and MAP1LC3β expression in WAT together explained 55.7 % of the variation in the plasma triglyceride levels of the rats (R adj. (2) = 0.557, p < 0.001). These results, together with increased p62 levels in WAT (p < 0.001), could indicate decreased adipose tissue lipid storing capacity as well as alterations in liver metabolism which may represent a plausible mechanism through which fructose consumption could disturb lipid metabolism and result in elevated triglyceride levels.Genes & Nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12263-013-0357-3 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin suppresses secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein (apo) B in primary rodent hepatocytes (RH) by favoring the degradation of B100, the larger form of apo B, through post-endoplasmic reticulum proteolysis. Sortilin 1 (sort1), a multi-ligand sorting receptor, has been proposed as a mediator of lysosomal B100 degradation by directing B100 in pre-VLDL to lysosomes rather than allowing maturation to VLDL and secretion. The purpose of our studies was to investigate the role of sort1 in insulin-dependent degradation of apo B. Using liver derived McArdle RH7777 (McA) cells, we demonstrate that insulin suppresses VLDL B100 secretion via a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent process that is inhibitable by wortmannin in a fashion similar to RH. Using McA cells and in situ cross-linking, we demonstrate that insulin acutely (30 min) stimulates the interaction of B100 with sort1. The insulin-induced interaction of sort1-B100 is markedly enhanced when lysosomal degradation is inhibited by Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1), an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification. As BafA1 also prevents insulin suppressive effects on apo B secretion, our results suggest that sort1-B100 interaction stimulated by insulin transiently accumulates with BafA1 and favors B100 secretion by default.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2012; 430(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.022 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia is complex hampering effective therapeutic strategies. Increased central parasympathetic nerve activity was shown to inhibit hepatic triglyceride (TG) excretion via modulation of liver stearyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 activity in rodents. We evaluated the impact of 7-h lactate clamping on VLDL-TG homeostasis in humans. METHODS: Eight normolipidemic, male subjects were subjected to a continuous infusion of l-lactate (target concentration 3 mmol/L) or saline for 7 h in random order on two separate occasions. TG kinetics in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL1 and 2) were measured after a bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3]-(2)H5-glycerol. Palmitic acid (16:0) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) in VLDL1 and VLDL2 were measured as a reflection of liver SCD1 activity. RESULTS: Plasma TG levels changed by 0.16 ± 0.09 mmol/L during lactate vs -0.15 ± 0.08 mmol/L during saline (P < 0.05). VLDL1 16:1/16:0 ratio increased to 1.2 ± 0.7 during lactate versus a decrease during saline by -1.5 ± 0.6 (p = 0.01). During lactate VLDL1-TG excretion was higher compared to saline (1604 [827-2870] versus 1285 [505-2155] μmol glycerol; p < 0.05), trending toward higher VLDL1-TG pool sizes during lactate (28%; p = 0.07 versus saline). CONCLUSIONS: In normolipidemic men, 7-h l-lactate clamp increases, rather than decreases SCD1 activity and hepatic TG secretion leading to elevated plasma TG levels. These conflicting data between human and rodents on central regulation of hepatic TG excretion illustrate that experimental findings on the role of the central nervous system in lipid metabolism should be interpreted with caution.Atherosclerosis 03/2013; 228(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.02.040 · 3.97 Impact Factor