Insulin plays a central role in regulating energy metabolism, including hepatic transport of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated triglyceride. Hepatic hypersecretion of VLDL and consequent hypertriglyceridemia leads to lower circulating high-density lipoprotein levels and generation of small dense low-density lipoproteins characteristic of the dyslipidemia commonly observed in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physiological fluctuations of insulin modulate VLDL secretion, and insulin inhibition of VLDL secretion upon feeding may be the first pathway to become resistant in obesity that leads to VLDL hypersecretion. This review summarizes the role of insulin-related signaling pathways that determine hepatic VLDL production. Disruption in signaling pathways that reduce generation of the second messenger phosphatidylinositide (3,4,5) triphosphate downstream of activated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase underlies the development of VLDL hypersecretion. As insulin resistance progresses, a number of pathways are altered that further augment VLDL hypersecretion, including hepatic inflammatory pathways. Insulin plays a complex role in regulating glucose metabolism, and it is not surprising that the role of insulin in VLDL and lipid metabolism will prove equally complex.
"Furthermore, the expression of ACC mRNA was increased in liver which might also explain the higher liver lipid content. The high levels of very low-density lipoproteins produced in the liver increasing the plasma TG levels are seen in insulin resistance (Sparks et al. 2012) which was also reported previously in our rats (Malo et al. 2013). It has been claimed that liver fat accumulation is an independent determinant of insulin resistance, also independent of weight (Seppala-Lindroos et al. 2002), and as our results suggest the fat content in the liver is indeed higher in fructose-fed rats. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term fructose consumption has been shown to evoke leptin resistance, to elevate triglyceride levels and to induce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Autophagy has been suggested to function in processes such as lipid storage in adipose tissue and inflammation in liver. Autophagy and the leptin system have also been suggested to regulate each other. This study aimed to identify the changes caused by fetal undernourishment and postnatal fructose diet in the gene expression of leptin, its receptors (LEPR-a, LEPR-b, LEPR-c, LEPR-e and LEPR-f) and autophagy genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of adult male rats in order to clarify the mechanism behind the metabolic alterations. The data clearly revealed that the long-term postnatal fructose diet decreased leptin levels (p < 0.001), LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.011) and LEPR-f (p = 0.005), as well as SOCS3 (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.006), ATG7 (p < 0.001), MAP1LC3β (p < 0.001) and LAMP2 (p = 0.004) mRNA expression in WAT. Furthermore, LEPR (p < 0.001), especially LEPR-b (p = 0.001) and LEPR-f (p < 0.001), ACC (p = 0.010), ATG7 (p = 0.024), MAP1LC3β (p = 0.003) and LAMP2 (p < 0.001) mRNA expression in the liver was increased in fructose-fed rats. In addition, the LEPR expression in liver and MAP1LC3β expression in WAT together explained 55.7 % of the variation in the plasma triglyceride levels of the rats (R adj. (2) = 0.557, p < 0.001). These results, together with increased p62 levels in WAT (p < 0.001), could indicate decreased adipose tissue lipid storing capacity as well as alterations in liver metabolism which may represent a plausible mechanism through which fructose consumption could disturb lipid metabolism and result in elevated triglyceride levels.
"PIP3 is a highly negatively charged phospholipid which may interfere with TG addition into VLDL precursors, thereby reducing the formation of VLDL. VLDL precursors unable to accept lipid droplets are targeted for degradation in lysosomes
. ApoB can be degraded in response to decreased VLDL secretion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Insulin treatment can lead to good glycemic control and result in improvement of lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of insulin analog initiation therapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/ high-density lipoprotein (HDL) sub-fractions and HDL associated enzymes in type 2 diabetic patients during early phase.
Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels above 10% despite ongoing combination therapy with sulphonylurea and metformin were selected. Former treatment regimen was continued for the first day followed by substitution of sulphonylurea therapy with different insulin analogs (0.4 U/kg/day) plus metformin. Glycemic profiles were determined over 72 hours by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and blood samples were obtained from all patients at 24 and 72 hours. Plasma levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-I) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Measurement of CETP and LCAT activity was performed via fluorometric analysis. Paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme activity was assessed from the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of phenyl acetate to phenol formation. LDL and HDL subfraction analysis was done by continuous disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Mean blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels were significantly decreased while HDL-C levels were significantly increased after insulin treatment. Although LDL-C levels were not significantly different before and after insulin initiation therapy a significant increase in LDL-1 subgroup and a significant reduction in atherogenic LDL-3 and LDL-4 subgroups were observed. Insulin analog initiation therapy caused a significant increase in HDL-large, HDL- intermediate and a significant reduction in HDL-small subfractions. CETP protein level and activity was significantly increased while apoB levels were significantly decreased following insulin analog initiation therapy. No significant difference was found in LCAT mass, LCAT activity, apoA-I and PON-1 arylesterase levels following insulin initiation therapy.
These findings indicate that insulin analog initiation therapy activates lipid metabolism via up-regulating CETP and shows anti-atherogenic effects by increasing HDL-large and decreasing LDL-3 and LDL-4 subfractions in a short time period.
Lipids in Health and Disease 04/2013; 12(1):54. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-54 · 2.22 Impact Factor
"VLDL1 particles, the major fraction secreted by the liver, are larger, less dense and contain more triglycerides, whereas VLDL2 particles are smaller and more cholesterol-enriched. The hepatic VLDL1 secretion rate from the liver is more sensitive to metabolic changes such as the presence of insulin resistance   and in familial combined hyperlipidemia . Free fatty acids (FFAs) derived from various sources, including adipose tissue, de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis but also FFA from dietary sources , are required as a major substrate for hepatic TG synthesis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia is complex hampering effective therapeutic strategies. Increased central parasympathetic nerve activity was shown to inhibit hepatic triglyceride (TG) excretion via modulation of liver stearyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 activity in rodents. We evaluated the impact of 7-h lactate clamping on VLDL-TG homeostasis in humans.
Eight normolipidemic, male subjects were subjected to a continuous infusion of l-lactate (target concentration 3 mmol/L) or saline for 7 h in random order on two separate occasions. TG kinetics in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL1 and 2) were measured after a bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3]-(2)H5-glycerol. Palmitic acid (16:0) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) in VLDL1 and VLDL2 were measured as a reflection of liver SCD1 activity.
Plasma TG levels changed by 0.16 ± 0.09 mmol/L during lactate vs -0.15 ± 0.08 mmol/L during saline (P < 0.05). VLDL1 16:1/16:0 ratio increased to 1.2 ± 0.7 during lactate versus a decrease during saline by -1.5 ± 0.6 (p = 0.01). During lactate VLDL1-TG excretion was higher compared to saline (1604 [827-2870] versus 1285 [505-2155] μmol glycerol; p < 0.05), trending toward higher VLDL1-TG pool sizes during lactate (28%; p = 0.07 versus saline).
In normolipidemic men, 7-h l-lactate clamp increases, rather than decreases SCD1 activity and hepatic TG secretion leading to elevated plasma TG levels. These conflicting data between human and rodents on central regulation of hepatic TG excretion illustrate that experimental findings on the role of the central nervous system in lipid metabolism should be interpreted with caution.
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