Increased Risk of Stomach and Esophageal Malignancies in People With AIDS
ABSTRACT People infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of some malignancies, but little is known about the effects of infection on risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated the risks of different histologic and anatomic subtypes of carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) of the stomach and esophagus in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
We analyzed data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, which links data collected from 1980 to 2007 for 16 US population-based HIV and AIDS and cancer registries. We compared risks of stomach and esophageal malignancies in people with AIDS (N = 596,955) with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We assessed calendar trends using Poisson regression.
People with AIDS had increased risks of carcinomas of the esophagus (SIR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-2.07; n = 95) and stomach (SIR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.76; n = 96). Risk was increased for esophageal adenocarcinoma (SIR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.31-2.70) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-1.92). People with AIDS had greater risks of carcinomas of the gastric cardia (SIR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.83-2.11) and noncardia (SIR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.05) than the general population. Although most stomach and esophageal NHLs that developed in people with AIDS were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, these individuals also had an increased risk of stomach mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (SIR, 5.99; 95% CI, 3.19-10.2; n = 13). The incidence of carcinomas remained fairly constant over time, but rates of NHL decreased from 1980 to 2007 (P(trend) < .0001).
People with AIDS are at increased risk for developing esophageal and stomach carcinomas and NHLs. Although the incidence of NHL decreased from 1980 to 2007 as treatments for HIV infection improved, HIV-infected individuals face continued risks of esophageal and stomach carcinomas.
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ABSTRACT: There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5–13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4–9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0–30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia.Cancer Medicine 01/2015; 4(4). DOI:10.1002/cam4.434
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of oesophageal cancer (OC) varies geographically, with more than 80% of cases and deaths worldwide occurring in developing countries. The aim of this study is to characterize the disease burden of OC in four urban populations in Eastern Africa, which may represent a previously undescribed high-incidence area. Data on all cases of OC diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from four population-based cancer registries in: Blantyre, Malawi; Harare, Zimbabwe; Kampala, Uganda; and Nairobi, Kenya. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated for each population, and descriptive statistics for incident cases were determined. In Blantyre, 351 male (59%) and 239 (41%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 47.2 and 30.3. In Harare, 213 male (61%) and 134 (39%) female cases were reported, with ASRs of 33.4 and 25.3, respectively. In Kampala, 196 male (59%) and 137 female (41%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 36.7 and 24.8. In Nairobi, 323 male (57%) and 239 female (43%) cases were reported, with ASRs of 22.6 and 21.6. Median age at diagnosis was significantly different among the four populations, ranging from 50 years in Blantyre to 65 years in Harare (p<0.0001). Except in Nairobi, incidence among males was significantly higher than among females (p<0.01). Squamous cell OC was the predominant histologic subtype at all sites. ASRs at all four sites were remarkably higher than the mean worldwide ASR. Investigation to evaluate potential etiologic effects of dietary, lifestyle, environmental, and other factors impacting the incidence in this region is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Cancer Epidemiology 02/2015; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2015.01.001 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by 6 striking features: increasing incidence, male predominance, lack of preventive measures, opportunities for early detection, demanding surgical therapy and care, and poor prognosis. Reasons for its rapidly increasing incidence include the rising prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux and obesity, combined with the decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The strong male predominance remains unexplained, but hormonal influence might play an important role. Future prevention might include the treatment of reflux or obesity or chemoprevention with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or statins, but no evidence-based preventive measures are currently available. Likely future developments include endoscopic screening of better defined high-risk groups for EAC. Individuals with Barrett esophagus might benefit from surveillance, at least those with dysplasia, but screening and surveillance strategies need careful evaluation to be feasible and cost-effective. The surgery for EAC is more extensive than virtually any other standard procedure, and postoperative survival, health-related quality of life, and nutrition need to be improved (eg, by improved treatment, better decision-making, and more individually tailored follow-up). Promising clinical developments include increased survival after preoperative chemoradiotherapy, the potentially reduced impact on health-related quality of life after minimally invasive surgery, and the new endoscopic therapies for dysplastic Barrett esophagus or early EAC. The overall survival rates are improving slightly, but poor prognosis remains a challenge. CA Cancer J Clin 2013;63:232-248. (©) 2013 American Cancer Society.CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 07/2013; 63(4):232-48. DOI:10.3322/caac.21185 · 162.50 Impact Factor