Fluphenazine and social therapy in the aftercare of schizophrenic patients. Relapse analyses of a two-year controlled study of fluphenazine decanoate and fluphenazine hydrochloride.
ABSTRACT The ability of long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and oral fluphenazine hydrochloride to forestall relapse among newly discharge schizophrenic patients is examined in the context of high and low degrees of social therapy (ST). A total of 105 patients were randomly assigned to the various treatments and maintained under controlled conditions for two years or until relapse. Relapse rates for all treatments remained traditionally high. Relpase rates for long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and oral fluphenazine hydrochloride are nearly identical in the first year, indicating that drug noncompliance does not adequately explain early schizophrenic relapse. However, patients who received long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and ST have a reduced risk of relapse over time. Relapsers who received long-acting fluphenazine decanoate appeared more affectively disturbed than other relapsers, yet both groups were diagnostically and symptomatically equivalent prior to treatment. Personal discomfort and intrafamilial stress are important predictors.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Treatment of schizophrenia in patients with comorbid substance use (alcohol/illicit drug use, abuse or dependence) presents challenges for public health systems. Substance use in people with schizophrenia is up to four times greater than the general population and is associated with medication nonadherence and poor outcomes. Therefore, continuous antipsychotic treatment in this population may pose more of a challenge than for those with schizophrenia alone. Many clinical trials and treatment recommendations in schizophrenia do not take into consideration substance use as people with comorbid substance use have typically been excluded from most antipsychotic trials. Nonetheless, antipsychotic treatment appears to be as efficacious in this population, although treatment discontinuation remains high. The objective of this review was to highlight the importance and utility of considering long-acting injectable antipsychotics for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use. METHODS: We did a literature search using PubMed with key words schizophrenia and substance use/abuse/dependence, nonadherence, antipsychotics, long acting injectables, relapse, and psychosocial interventions. We limited our search to human studies published in English and 4,971 articles were identified. We focused on clinical trials, case reports, case series, reviews and meta-analyses resulting in 125 articles from 1975-2011. RESULTS: Our review suggests the potential role of long-acting injectables for people with comorbid substance use and schizophrenia in leading to improvements in psychopathology, relapse prevention, fewer rehospitalizations, and better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: While more research is needed, long-acting antipsychotics should be considered an important option in the management of people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use.Journal of Dual Diagnosis 01/2012; 8(1):50-61. DOI:10.1080/15504263.2012.647345 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, efficacy, and compliance of a risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) formulation for the maintenance treatment of stabilized bipolar patients. A prospective, open-label trial of RLAI was conducted for 12 months. Stable bipolar patients (n=11) were switched from their existing oral antipsychotic agents to RLAI, and injections were given every 2 weeks. The assessments were performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of treatment by using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale, 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). The satisfaction levels of subjects were evaluated at the end of the study period using a 10-point visual analog scale. Ten patients (90.9%) completed the trial, and no significant changes were seen in the YMRS, HAM-D, and BPRS scores throughout the study. CGI-S and ESRS scores were significantly decreased from the baseline to the post-12-month treatment score. Relapses were not reported by any of the participants. This result indicates that RLAI may be beneficial in the maintenance therapy of stable bipolar patients; however, an adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is necessary to draw a definite conclusion about the role of RLAI in the maintenance treatment of bipolar patients.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 09/2007; 31(6):1219-23. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.04.017 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-acting depot antipsychotics were developed specifically to promote treatment adherence (compliance) and they are a valuable option for patients requiring maintenance medication for schizo- phrenia. Depot use has fallen in recent years, perhaps owing to the introduction of oral atypical anti- psychotics. Psychiatrist and patient acceptance of depot medication is variable. The depot formulation and the traditional 'depot clinic' seem to have an image problem, although many patients already receiving depot medication like it. Some psychiatrists may not adequately consider the risks and benefits when contemplating prescribing depot medication. Further, public opinion and planning forces in psychiatric health services may have a negative influence on the use of long-acting treatments. This review considers possible reasons for underutilisation of depot antipsychotics in maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and highlights the potential benefits and future role of depot drugs.Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 01/2005; 11(3):203-211. DOI:10.1192/apt.11.3.203