Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

Industrial Crops and Products (Impact Factor: 3.21). 01/2011; 34(1):943-951. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.02.017

ABSTRACT Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22 g L−1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2 mg L−1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1 mg L−1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5 mg L−1 BAP and 3.01–3.91 cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3 mg L−1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1 mg L−1 IAA, 1 mg L−1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0.25 mg L−1 activated charcoal medium. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% success. No significant differences were observed in rooting of shoots in the different toxic genotypes. However, rooting response was reduced in non-toxic genotype as compared to toxic genotypes.Highlights► Efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol in Jatropha curcas via hypocotyls explants was developed. ► Regeneration was found to be genotype dependent. ► In vitro source of explants led to higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro source. ► Number of shoot buds induced were affected by the explants position on seedling axis. ► Age of seedling also influenced the regeneration potential which decreased with increase in age. ► Transient decrease of Ca2+ concentrations in germination medium increased percentage response.

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