Effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spontaneous DNA repair in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
ABSTRACT Immunosuppressive treatment increases the risk of post-transplant cancer. Cyclosporine reduced UV-induced DNA repair by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and increased cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors or mycophenolic acid, suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced DNA repair in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro at maintenance drug concentrations. DNA repair, when measured in quiescent cells, is named spontaneous DNA repair, and represents a basal ongoing DNA repair in response to endogenous DNA damage. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spontaneous DNA repair has not been investigated.
To investigate the effect of currently used immunosuppressive drugs on spontaneous DNA repair.
Spontaneous DNA repair by human PBMC was tested in vitro in the presence of the CNI-cyclosporine and tacrolimus; mycophenolic acid (MPA); and the mTOR inhibitors-sirolimus and everolimus, at low to high nontoxic concentrations.
Cyclosporine and tacrolimus suppressed spontaneous DNA repair throughout the tested dose range. In contrast, MPA, sirolimus and everolimus did so only at the high doses.
A reduction in CNI dosage may lead to a decrease in the occurrence of post-transplant malignancy.
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ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. Arming ourselves with appropriate and safe treatment modalities to provide relief for this chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition is of utmost importance to our patients and their families. Utilizing topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) for the treatment of AD not responsive to high-potency corticosteroids, or low-potency corticosteroids and localized to the face, eyelids, and skin folds of patients >2 years, is reasonable to include in common practice. Despite the FDA¿s Black Box warning, to date no evidence has been published linking the TCIs to an increased incidence of malignancy in either children or adults that establishes causation. The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) therefore recognizes that the benefits of TCIs should be carefully weighed with the theoretical risks in advising patients, and acknowledges that long-term studies remain in progress. The safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus should therefore be considered when treating children and adults with AD in Canadian allergy and immunology practices.Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology 07/2013; 9(1):24.
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ABSTRACT: Analysis of phosphorylated histone protein H2AX (γH2AX) foci is currently the most sensitive method to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). This protein modification has the potential to become an individual biomarker of cellular stress, especially in the diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic diseases. To make γH2AX foci analysis available as a routine screening method, different software approaches for automated immunofluorescence pattern evaluation have recently been developed. In this study, we used novel pattern recognition algorithms on the AKLIDES(®) platform to automatically analyze immunofluorescence images of γH2AX foci and compared the results with visual assessments. Dose- and time-dependent γH2AX foci formation was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide (ETP). Moreover, the AKLIDES system was used to analyze the impact of different immunomodulatory reagents on γH2AX foci formation in PBMCs. Apart from γH2AX foci counting the use of novel pattern recognition algorithms allowed the measurement of their fluorescence intensity and size, as well as the analysis of overlapping γH2AX foci. The comparison of automated and manual foci quantification showed overall a good correlation. After ETP exposure, a clear dose-dependent increase of γH2AX foci formation was evident using the AKLIDES as well as Western blot analysis. Kinetic experiments on PBMCs incubated with 5 μM ETP demonstrated a peak in γH2AX foci formation after 4 to 8 h, while a removal of ETP resulted in a strong reduction of γH2AX foci after 1 to 4 h. In summary, this study demonstrated that the AKLIDES system can be used as an efficient automatic screening tool for γH2AX foci analysis by providing new evaluation features and facilitating the identification of drugs which induce or modulate DNA damage. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.Cytometry Part A 09/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequent occurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) containing weakly tumorigenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) following iatrogenic immunosuppression for organ transplantation remains incompletely understood. Here we address this problem in the light of recent insights into (1) the association of low-risk β-HPVs with skin SCCs in the rare genetic syndromes of epidermodysplasia verruciformis and xeroderma pigmentosum, (2) the frequent recovery of post-transplant tumor control on substituting calcineurin-inhibitory with mTOR-inhibitory immunosuppression, (3) the unexpectedly favorable prognosis of node-positive SCCs containing high-risk α-HPVs originating in the activated immune niche of the oropharynx, (4) the rapid occurrence of HPV-negative SCCs in ultraviolet (UV)-damaged skin of melanoma patients receiving Raf-inhibitory drugs, and (5) the selective ability of β-HPV E6 oncoproteins to inhibit Notch tumor-suppressive signaling in cutaneous and mesenchymal tissues. The crosstalk so implied between oncogenic UV-induced mutations, defective host immunity, and β-HPV-dependent stromal-epithelial signaling suggests that immunosuppressants such as calcineurin inhibitors intensify mitogenic signalling in TP53-mutant keratinocytes while also abrogating immune-dependent Notch-mediated tumor repression. This emerging interplay between solar damage, viral homeostasis and immune control makes it timely to reappraise strategies for managing skin SCCs in transplant patients.Cancer Treatment Reviews 08/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor