Animals on farms may be a potential reservoir and environmental source of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Expanded surveillance methods for animal-associated MRSA are needed. To develop an environmental sampling method and to determine the correlation between animal and environmental MRSA positivity in the farm setting, we sampled horses, cattle, and their local environments at several farms in the mid-Atlantic United States. We obtained nasal swabs from 13 racehorses at first visit, and 11 racehorses at the same farm eight weeks later. We also sampled 26 pleasure horses and 26 beef cattle from two additional farm sites. Sterilized electrostatic cloths were used to collect dry dust samples from environmental surfaces in proximity to animals; cloths were cultured using a broth enrichment protocol. We described isolates by genotype and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype. None of the samples (nasal or environmental) were positive from the pleasure horse farm or the cattle farm. On the racehorse farm, 8/13 (61%) nasal and 5/7 (71%) environmental samples were positive for MRSA at the first visit. Isolates found were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype. We observed significant positive correlation between nasal carriage of MRSA in animals and our ability to isolate MRSA from dry surface samples of their local environments. The methods presented here may aid in surveillance efforts for equine and other animal MRSA. This study successfully applies existing MRSA surveillance methods for indoor, high animal density settings to outdoor and low-density farms.
"This PFGE clone has been frequently reported in horses as an endogenous MRSA strain and has been classified as a nosocomial or hospital-acquire MRSA (HA-MRSA) [31,32]. These results provide further evidence that among the constellation of MRSA strains circulating in humans, certain strains are more likely to circulate in horses, their environments and their human contacts as has been previously suggested [4,6,32,33]. In contrast, other strains classified in this study as USA100, USA300 and USA800 are clones frequently reported in the US human population, either as a cause of nosocomial infections (HA-MRSA, USA100 and USA800) or present in the general population (also known as community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA], USA300) [34,35]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role that environmental contamination might play as a reservoir and a possible source of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for patients and personnel at equine veterinary hospitals remains undefined, as the environment has only been monitored during outbreaks or for short periods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the monthly presence, distribution, and characteristics of environmental MRSA at an equine hospital, and to establish patterns of contamination over time using molecular epidemiological analyses. For this purpose, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance was performed targeting the environment and incoming patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec typing, PFGE typing, and dendrographic analysis were used to characterize and analyze these isolates. Overall, 8.6% of the surfaces and 5.8% of the horses sampled were positive for MRSA. The most common contaminated surfaces were: computers, feed-water buckets, and surgery tables-mats. Ninety percent of the isolates carried SCCmec type IV, and 62.0% were classified as USA500. Molecular analysis showed that new pulsotypes were constantly introduced into the hospital throughout the year. However, maintenance of strains in the environment was also observed when unique clones were detected for 2 consecutive months on the same surfaces. Additionally, pulsotypes were circulating throughout several areas and different contact surfaces of the hospital. Based on these results, it is evident that MRSA is constantly introduced and frequently found in the equine hospital environment, and that some contact surfaces could act as "hot-spots". These contaminated surfaces should be actively targeted for strict cleaning and disinfection as well as regular monitoring.
Veterinary Research 03/2014; 45(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-45-31 · 2.82 Impact Factor
"No known risk factor following the national MRSA guideline was present . However, she mentioned regular contact with horses and lived in a rural area, which are sometimes mentioned as a risk factor for MRSA carriage [14-16]. All hospital contacts of known patients positive for MRSA t011 (n = 39) were checked for contact with the HCW in the period between negative and positive status (October 2008 and April 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Netherlands a successful MRSA Search and Destroy policy is applied in healthcare institutes. We determined the effect of an adjustment in the MRSA Search and Destroy policy for patients in the outpatient clinic on the MRSA transmission to health care workers (HCW).
In June 2008 an adjustment in the policy for outpatients was introduced in a large teaching hospital. Following this adjustment MRSA positive patients at risk could be seen and treated applying general precautions, without additional protective measures. Also, disinfection of the room after the patient had left was abandoned. To monitor the effect of this policy on the transmission of MRSA all physicians and health care workers of the outpatient clinic were screened for MRSA carriage repeatedly.
Before the introduction of the adjusted policy all physicians and HCW of the outpatient clinic were screened (=0-measurement, n = 1,073). None of them was found to be MRSA positive. After introduction of the policy in June 2008 the screening was repeated in October 2008 (n = 1,170) and April 2009 (n = 1,128). In April 2009 one health care worker was MRSA positive resulting in a mean prevalence of 0,04 %. This is lower than the known prevalence in HCW. The health care worker was colonized with the livestock-related Spa type t011. As far as we could verify, no patients with this Spa-type had been cared for by the health care worker.
The adjusted MRSA policy did not lead to detectable transmission of MRSA to HCW and was associated with less disturbances in the work flow.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of β-lactam antibiotics results in the selection of bacteria showing resistance toward this class of antibiotics. The review focuses on the increasing importance of methicillin resistant staphylococci and broad-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in horses. Diagnostic protocols that optimize accurate identification of these bacteria from both clinical samples and samples obtained from putative carrier animals are described. In addition, the opportunities and pitfalls for preventive and curative measures are discussed.
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