Are antipsychotics effective for the treatment of anorexia nervosa? Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT To assess the utility of antipsychotics for weight gain and improvement of illness-related psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa.
PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, and PsycINFO citations from the inception of the databases until March 27, 2012, were searched without language restrictions using the following keywords: randomized, random, randomly, and anorexia nervosa. In addition, we hand-searched for additional studies eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis and contacted authors for unpublished data.
Included in this study were randomized placebo- or usual care-controlled trials of antipsychotics in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Two independent evaluators extracted data. The primary outcome of interest was body weight, expressed as the standardized mean difference (SMD) between the 2 groups in baseline to endpoint change of body mass index (BMI), endpoint BMI, or daily weight change. SMD, risk ratio (RR), and number needed to harm (NNH) ± 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
Across 8 studies (mean duration = 9.6 weeks; range, 7-12 weeks), 221 patients (mean age = 22.5 years, 219 [99.1%] females) with anorexia nervosa were randomly assigned to olanzapine (n = 54), quetiapine (n = 15), risperidone (n = 18), pimozide (n = 8), sulpiride (n = 9), placebo (n = 99), or usual care (n = 18). Both individually (P = .11 to P = .47) and pooled together (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.56; P = .06, I2 = 0%; 7 studies, n = 195), weight/BMI effects were not significantly different between antipsychotics and placebo/usual care. Moreover, pooled antipsychotics and placebo/usual care did not differ regarding scores on questionnaires related to anorexia nervosa (P = .32, 5 studies, n = 114), body shape (P = .91, 4 studies, n = 100), depressive symptoms (P = .08, 4 studies, n = 103), and anxiety (P = .53, 4 studies, n = 121). Individually, quetiapine (1 study, n = 33) outperformed usual care regarding eating disorder attitudes (P = .01) and anxiety (P = .02). While rates of dropout due to any reason (P = .83, I2 = 0%) and due to adverse events (P = .54, I2 = 5%) were similar in both groups, drowsiness/sedation occurred significantly more often with antipsychotics than placebo/usual care (RR = 3.69, 95% CI, 1.37-9.95; I2 = 67%, P = .01; NNH = 2, P = .001; 5 studies, n = 129), but most other adverse effects were only sparsely reported.
Although limited by small samples, this meta-analysis failed to demonstrate antipsychotic efficacy for body weight and related outcomes in females with anorexia nervosa.
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ABSTRACT: Weight restoration is considered a principal outcome for treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) due to the significant physiological disturbances resultant from acute states of malnutrition. Treatment outcomes for populations with AN are relatively poor, with increasing evidence suggesting that weight restoration alone is insufficient for long-term recovery. Research aimed at understanding the psychological sequaele of AN, in particular during weight restoration, nevertheless remain scarce. This systematic review aimed to evaluate existing research regarding anxiety symptoms during treatment for AN, and the relationship of anxiety symptomology and weight restoration. Twelve articles were identified from a systematic search of three electronic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Web of Science), and were eligible for inclusion. Study methodology, results and quality were reviewed. Results regarding change in anxiety symptomology were inconsistent, though evidence did not support a relationship between anxiety change and weight restoration. Reasons for these inconsistencies and limitations of included studies were reviewed. Further research is warranted to elucidate the role of anxiety in AN and its implications for treatment and longer-term outcome.Journal of Eating Disorders 12/2015; 3(1):7. DOI:10.1186/s40337-015-0046-2
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ABSTRACT: Psychopharmacologic treatment is playing a greater role in the management of patients with eating disorders. In this paper, we review randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other eating disorders over the past 3 years. Fluoxetine remains the only medication approved for an eating disorder, that being BN. RCTs of antipsychotics in AN have had mixed results; the only agent with some evidence of efficacy is olanzapine. One study suggests dronabinol may induce weight gain in AN. Preliminary studies suggest lack of efficacy of alprazolam, dehydroepiandrosterone, or physiologic estrogen replacement in AN; erythromycin in BN; and the opioid antagonist ALKS-33 in BED. In BED with obesity or overweight, bupropion may cause mild weight loss without seizures, and chromium may improve glucose regulation. Also in BED, three RCTs suggest the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine may reduce binge eating episodes, and another RCT suggests intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There remains a disconnection between the size of eating disorders as a public health problem and the lack of pharmacotherapy research of these conditions.Current Psychiatry Reports 05/2015; 17(5):573. DOI:10.1007/s11920-015-0573-1 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Seroto-nin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptom-atology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in everyday clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings.PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125569 · 3.53 Impact Factor