Efficacy of dexamethasone with controlled hypotension on intraoperative bleeding, postoperative oedema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone with controlled hypotension on intraoperative bleeding and postoperative morbidity in rhinoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rhinoplasty patients required hump resection and lateral osteotomy were included in this study. The patients were randomized into four groups. In group I (n=15), a single dose of 10mg/kg dexamethasone was intravenously administered at the beginning of the operation. In group II (n=15), the patients were given 2 doses of 10mg/kg intravenously dexamethasone at the beginning of the operation, and 24 hours after the operation. In group III (n=15), 3 doses of 10mg/kg intravenously dexamethasone were given at the beginning of the operation, before osteotomy and 24 hours after the operation. Group IV (n=15) was assigned as control group and the patients were neither administered dexamethasone nor applied hypotension. All cases in groups I, II and III were operated under controlled hypotension. Systolic arterial pressure was aimed to keep between 65 and 75mmHg for controlled hypotensive anaesthesia. Controlled hypotension was achieved by a remifentanil infusion of 0.1-0.5microg/kg/min, following a bolus of 1microg/kg. Degree of eyelid oedema and periorbital soft-tissue ecchymosis was evaluated separately using a scale of 0-4. Intraoperative blood loss was recorded for each patient. Patients were evaluated at 24 hours and postoperative days 2, 5, 7, and 10. RESULTS: In groups I, II and III, intraoperative bleeding was more decreased and the operation time was significantly shorter compared with control group (P<0.001). Eyelid oedema and periorbital ecchymosis were significantly decreased in groups I, II and III at the following postoperative 7 and 10 days (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between group III and other groups at the postoperative 5 and 7 days in lower eyelid oedema (P<0.001), upper and lower eyelid ecchymosis (P<0.001 and 0.004, respectively). There were no postoperative complications with using steroid in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: Three doses of dexamethasone with controlled hypotension considerably reduced postoperative morbidities of rhinoplasty with osteotomy as well as intraoperative bleeding. Thus, in group III receiving 3 doses of steroid, when compared to other groups, more uneventful postoperative period were provided for surgeon and the patients.