Numerical investigation of oxygen mass transfer in a helical-type artery bypass graft.
ABSTRACT Local oxygen lack in arterial walls (hypoxia) plays a very important role in the initiation, progression and development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and thrombosis. Aiming to find out whether a helical-type artery bypass graft (ABG) is hypoxia beneficial, a numerical study was carried out to compare oxygen transport between a helical-type ABG and a conventional-type ABG. The dimensionless mass transfer coefficient (Sherwood number) was introduced to evaluate the oxygen mass transfer distribution and detailed oxygen wall flux was computed. The results show that the intrinsic geometry of a helical-type ABG resulted in improved hypoxia and the oxygen-depleted fluid located proximally to the occluded section as compared with that of a conventional-type ABG. However, benefits aside, distinct double low regions (low wall shear stress (WSS) and hypoxia) which might be most prone to IH and more localised and thicker boundary layer of oxygen-depleted fluid were observed at the helical-type ABG. This may explain why the helical flow plays a detrimental role at some locations in the human body. In addition, it was observed that although low WSS region was always accompanied with low oxygen supply, the oxygen transport rate did not adjust simultaneously with flow. The change in oxygen distribution usually lagged behind the flow change. A physiological WSS region may be associated with hypoxia condition. This study captured the qualitative trend of oxygen distribution in ABGs and the effect of helical geometry on reducing hypoxia, which is useful in the structural design of swirling flow vascular devices.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate oxygen mass transfer in the human carotid bifurcation, focusing on the effects of the wall compliance and flow field on the temporal variation and spatial distribution of the oxygen wall flux. Details of unsteady convective-diffusive oxygen transport were examined numerically using a compliant model of the human carotid bifurcation and realistic blood flow waveforms. Results reveal that axial flow separation at the outer common-internal carotid wall can significantly alter the flow field, oxygen tension field, and oxygen wall flux distribution. At the outer wall of the sinus, the Sherwood number, Sh (non-dimensional oxygen wall flux), takes on significantly lower values than at other sites due to the attenuation of transport rates by convective flow away from wall. More specifically, the lowest value of Sh was Sh approximately 6 (in the sinus), which is much lower than the value of the non-dimensional oxygen consumption rate (Damkohler number, Da) in the reactive wall tissue (Da=29-39). At the inner wall of the sinus, Sh approximately 170 is far above the expected value of Da. This implies that flow separation on the outer wall of the sinus provides a very strong fluid mechanical barrier to oxygen transport; whereas at the inner wall of the sinus, the mechanism of transport is controlled by the wall consumption rate.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 10/2006; 34(9):1389-99. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of 40% supplemental oxygen (O ( 2) ) will decrease cellular proliferation and intimal hyperplasia (IH) at a prosthetic vascular graft (PVG)-to-artery anastomosis. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits underwent placement of a 3-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft in their infrarenal aorta. Four groups of five rabbits were placed either in a normoxic (21%) environment or in a 40% supplemental O ( 2) environment for 7 or 42 days. Twenty-four hours before the rabbits were humanely killed for aortic graft harvest, BrDU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) was injected into the rabbits intraperitoneally. Image analysis (Bioquant) morphometrics were used to measure cells with BrDU staining and intimal areas at the distal anastomosis. Cellular proliferation is defined as positively staining BrDU cells divided by all cells in the artery wall. IH is reported as a ratio between the intimal area and the medial area to standardize the varying aortic size and degree of aortic fixation among rabbits. The Student t test was used to compare cellular proliferation and IH between control and O ( 2) -treated rabbits. Cellular proliferation in the intima at 7 days was significantly reduced in the O ( 2) -treated animals (1.7% +/- 1%) versus the control animals (28.6% +/- 3%) ( P =.0001). The cellular proliferation in the intima at 42 days returned to preoperative levels in the O ( 2) -treated group (0.15%) and in the control group (0.11%) ( P = not significant). IH at 7 days was minimal, and no difference between the O ( 2) -treated group (0.017 +/-.006) and the control group (0.009 +/-.03) ( P = not significant) was found. IH was significantly reduced at 42 days in the O ( 2) -treated animals (0.031 +/-.012) when compared with the control animals (0.193 +/-.043) ( P =.006). Supplemental O ( 2) (40%) significantly reduces cellular proliferation and IH at the distal anastomosis of a PVG-to-artery anastomosis in the rabbit model.Journal of Vascular Surgery 04/2001; 33(3):608-13. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of helix geometry for arterial grafts has been proposed on the hypothesis that by intentionally inducing swirling or spiral flow in the grafts, hemodynamic performance of the grafts might be improved. To investigate their hemodynamic performance, the present study numerically simulated the flows in the helical grafts, not only for comparison with conventional grafts but for their parameter analysis of Dean Number, helical pitch, and amplitude. Results showed that the helical graft achieved three dimensionality swirling flow, more uniformly distributed flow field and high wall shear stress (WSS) which continued in the straight part of the graft downstream. However, increased pressure drop was predicted in helical graft; flow areas with low velocity will concentrate in one corner, which might possibly suffer from flow stagnation and inhabitation, leading to a possible vulnerability to hemodynamic failure, intimal hyperplasia (IH) and thrombosis. The parameter study indicates that even at the same Dean number but with different geometry, the hemodynamic performance of two grafts are totally different. Shorter helical pitch and larger helical amplitude do improve the graft's hemodynamic performance, but may not be mechanically robust or applicable clinically. The current study increases fundamental understanding of the flow mechanism in swirling flow grafts.ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 04/2009; 55(3):192-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor