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Activités antioxydantes de dix plantes medicinales de la pharmacopée ivoirienne

Sciences & Nature 01/2011; 8(1):1-11.

ABSTRACT Le stress oxydant, cause de plusieurs maladies, suscite la recherche de nouveaux remèdes antioxydants. Dans cette optique, l'étude de l'activité antioxydante des extraits méthanoliques de dix (10) plantes utilisées dans la pharmacopée ivoirienne a été réalisée. Ces plantes sont issues de la région forestière de la Côte d'Ivoire et précisément du département d'ISSIA (région du haut Sassandra). Les extraits des dix plantes sont obtenus après macération dans le méthanol 96 %, pendant 48 H, à la température ambiante (25°C), suivie d'une double filtration sur coton puis sur papier wattman 3 mm et évaporé au rotavapor. La poudre ainsi obtenue, nous a permis de réaliser nos tests phytochimiques et antioxydants. Le tri phytochimique, l'activité antiradicalaire par le DPPH et l'inhibition de la peroxydation lipidique par la méthode au thiocyanate ferrique et la méthode des TBARS ont été utilisées. Le tri phytochimique a permis de révéler que ces plantes contiennent des stérols, des polyterpènes, des polyphénols, des flavonoïdes des alcaloïdes et des saponines. Celles qui présentent l'activité antioxydante et antiradicalaire avérée sont: Mitragyna ciliata (CI 50 = 10,5 ± 0,288 µg/mL), Trichilia prieuriana (CI 50 = 7,5 ± 0,288 µg/mL), Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (CI 50 = 4,00 ± 0,288 µg/mL) et Disthemonanthus benthamianus (CI 50 = 4,50 ± 0,288 µg/ ml). Ces plantes contiennent des flavonoïdes et des polyphénols qui sont en général de très bons antioxydants. Ainsi, elles sont, au vu de notre étude, considérées comme des plantes antioxydantes et antiradicalaires parmi les 10 plantes sélectionnées. Abstract Antioxidant activities of ten plants used in ivorian pharmacopoeia Oxidative stress is responsible for several diseases. This phenomenal has moved researchers into action in looking for new remedies «antioxidants». In this context, the study of the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ten (10) plants used in Côte d'Ivoire pharmacopoeia has been performed. These plants are from the forest region of Côte d'Ivoire precisely the Department of ISSIA (upper Sassandra region). The extracts from these ten plants were obtained after soaking in 96% methanol for 48 H at room temperature (25 ° C), followed by a double filtration on cotton and Wattman 3 mm paper and evaporated in a rotary evaporator. The powder thus obtained allowed us to perform our phytochemical test and antioxidants. The phytochemical screening, the scavenging activity by DPPH and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method and the method of TBARS were used. The phytochemical screening revealed that these plants contain sterols, polyterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Those that have a very significant antioxidant activity and scavenging are: Mitragyna ciliata (IC 50 = 10.5 ± 0.288 mg / mL), Trichilia prieuriana (IC 50 = 7.5 ± 0.288 mg / mL), Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (IC 50 = 4.00 ± 0.288 mg / mL) and Disthemonanthus benthamianus (IC 50 = 4.50 ± 0.288 mg / ml) contain flavonoids and polyphenols, which are generally very good antioxidants. Thus, in light of our study these plants were considered as antioxidant and antiradical plants among the 10 selected plants.

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