Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
ABSTRACT The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9-14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 (P < 0.05) versus SPEC: 16.1 ± 1.0 to 16.8 ± 1.0 (P = 0.05)]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks (P < 0.05), which was positively related to triglycerides (P < 0.001) and inversely associated with total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and LDL (P < 0.001). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD (P = 0.05), which was positively related to fasting insulin (P < 0.001) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose (P < 0.05). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration.
SourceAvailable from: Carlos A Camargo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with suboptimal health. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency may be rising, but population-based trends are uncertain. We sought to evaluate US population trends in vitamin D insufficiency. We compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), collected during 1988 through 1994, with NHANES data collected from 2001 through 2004 (NHANES 2001-2004). Complete data were available for 18 883 participants in NHANES III and 13 369 participants in NHANES 2001-2004. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 29-30) ng/mL during NHANES III and decreased to 24 (23-25) ng/mL during NHANES 2001-2004. Accordingly, the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels of less than 10 ng/mL increased from 2% (95% CI, 2%-2%) to 6% (5%-8%), and 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL or more decreased from 45% (43%-47%) to 23% (20%-26%). The prevalence of 25(OH)D levels of less than 10 ng/mL in non-Hispanic blacks rose from 9% during NHANES III to 29% during NHANES 2001-2004, with a corresponding decrease in the prevalence of levels of 30 ng/mL or more from 12% to 3%. Differences by age strata (mean serum 25[OH]D levels ranging from 28-32 ng/mL) and sex (28 ng/mL for women and 32 ng/mL for men) during NHANES III equalized during NHANES 2001-2004 (24 vs 24 ng/mL for age and 24 vs 24 ng/mL for sex). National data demonstrate a marked decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels from the 1988-1994 to the 2001-2004 NHANES data collections. Racial/ethnic differences have persisted and may have important implications for known health disparities. Current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation are inadequate to address the growing epidemic of vitamin D insufficiency.Archives of internal medicine 04/2009; 169(6):626-32. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.604 · 13.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a frequent problem in studies of young adults, elderly persons, and children in other countries, there are limited data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy US teenagers. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adolescents presenting for primary care. A cross-sectional clinic-based sample. An urban hospital in Boston. Three hundred seven adolescents recruited at an annual physical examination to undergo a blood test and nutritional and activity assessments. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone, anthropometric data, nutritional intake, and weekly physical activity and lifestyle variables that were potential risk factors for hypovitaminosis D. Seventy-four patients (24.1%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level, </=15 ng/mL [</=37.5 nmol/L]), of whom 14 (4.6%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25OHD level, </=8 ng/mL [</=20 nmol/L]). By using a broader definition (25OHD level, </=20 ng/mL [</=50 nmol/L]), 129 patients (42.0%) were vitamin D insufficient. Serum 25OHD levels were inversely correlated with parathyroid hormone levels (r = -0.29), and were 24% lower during winter compared with summer. In a final multivariate model, season, ethnicity, milk and juice consumption, body mass index, and physical activity were significant independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D deficiency was present in many US adolescents in this urban clinic-based sample. The prevalence was highest in African American teenagers and during winter, although the problem seems to be common across sex, season, and ethnicity.Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 06/2004; 158(6):531-7. DOI:10.1001/archpedi.158.6.531 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The simultaneous assessment of quantitative indexes of insulin secretion and action in a single individual is important when quantifying their relative role in the evolution of glucose tolerance in different physiopathological states. Available methods quantify these indexes in relatively nonphysiological conditions, e.g., during glucose clamps or intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Here, we present a method based on a physiological test applicable to large-scale genetic and epidemiologic studies-the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma C-peptide, insulin, and glucose data from a frequently sampled OGTT with 22 samples throughout 300 min (FSOGTT300-22) were analyzed in 11 subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance. In each individual, two indexes of pancreatic sensitivity to glucose (phis [10(9) min(-1)] and phid [10(9)]) and the insulin sensitivity index (SI) (10(5) dl/kg per min per pmol/l) were estimated by using the minimal model of C-peptide secretion and kinetics originally proposed for intravenous graded glucose infusion and the minimal model approach recently proposed for meal/OGTTs. The indexes obtained from FSOGTT300-22 were used as a reference for internal validation of OGTT protocols with reduced sampling schedules. Our results show that 11 samples in a 300-min period (OGTT300-11) is the test of choice because the indexes it provides (phis = 36 +/- 3 [means +/- SE]; phid = 710 +/- 111; SI = 10.2 +/- 2.4) show excellent correlation and are not statistically different from those of FSOGTT300-22 (phis = 33 +/- 3; phid = 715 +/- 120; SI = 10.1 +/- 2.3). In conclusion, OGTT300-11, interpreted with C-peptide and glucose minimal models, provides a quantitative description of beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in a single individual while preserving the important clinical classification of glucose tolerance provided by the standard 120-min OGTT.Diabetes 02/2001; 50(1):150-8. DOI:10.2337/diabetes.50.1.150 · 8.47 Impact Factor