Adoptive Transfer of Induced-Treg Cells Effectively Attenuates Murine Airway Allergic Inflammation

Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine Program, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 07/2012; 7(7):e40314. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040314
Source: PubMed


Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma.

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    • "An additional factor that likely contributes to the overall T cell expansion and lung injury in our model is the unopposed CD4 helper T cell effector action with a relative regulatory T cell deficiency. Tregs, in fact, have been shown to decrease AHR in asthma studies [37]. For example, Tregs are capable of moderating systemic and pulmonary inflammation in GVHD [38], [39] as well as in acute lung injury models [40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pulmonary GVHD (pGVHD) is an important complication of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and is thought to be a consequence of the HCT conditioning regimen, allogeneic donor cells, and posttransplant lung exposures. We have previously demonstrated that serial inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposures potentiate the development of pGVHD after murine allogeneic HCT. In the current study we hypothesized that allogeneic lymphocytes and environmental exposures alone, in the absence of a pre-conditioning regimen, would cause features of pGVHD and would lead to a different T cell expansion pattern compared to syngeneic cells. Methods Recipient Rag1−/− mice received a transfer of allogeneic (Allo) or syngeneic (Syn) spleen cells. After 1 week of immune reconstitution, mice received 5 daily inhaled LPS exposures and were sacrificed 72 hours after the last LPS exposure. Lung physiology, histology, and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assessed. Lung cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Both Allo and Syn mice that undergo LPS exposures (AlloLPS and SynLPS) have prominent lymphocytic inflammation in their lungs, resembling pGVHD pathology, not seen in LPS-unexposed or non-transplanted controls. Compared to SynLPS, however, AlloLPS have significantly increased levels of BAL protein and enhancement of airway hyperreactivity, consistent with more severe lung injury. This injury in AlloLPS mice is associated with an increase in CD8 T cells and effector CD4 T cells, as well as a decrease in regulatory to effector CD4 T cell ratio. Additionally, cytokine analysis is consistent with a preferential Th1 differentiation and upregulation of pulmonary CCL5 and granzyme B. Conclusions Allogeneic lymphocyte transfer into lymphocyte-deficient mice, followed by LPS exposures, causes features of pGVHD and lung injury in the absence of a pre-conditioning HCT regimen. This lung disease associated with an expansion of allogeneic effector T cells provides a novel model to dissect mechanisms of pGVHD independent of conditioning.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97951. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097951 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Foxp3+ cells control allergic airway inflammatory responses and their depletion during the sensitization phase results in increased IgE titers and eosinophilia after challenge in the lungs (20, 90). Adoptive transfer of Treg cells in the challenge phase, in turn, results in suppressed inflammatory response, and both nTreg cells and in vitro generated iTreg cells are capable of suppression (91–93). Importantly, mice with defects in iTreg generation develop spontaneous inflammation in the lungs (and gut) with features of Th2 type allergic airway inflammation (24). "
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg) are needed in the control of immune responses and to maintain immune homeostasis. Of this subtype of regulatory lymphocytes, the most potent are Foxp3 expressing CD4+ T cells, which can be roughly divided into two main groups; natural Treg cells (nTreg), developing in the thymus, and induced or adaptive Treg cells (iTreg), developing in the periphery from naïve, conventional T cells. Both nTreg cells and iTreg cells have their own, non-redundant roles in the immune system, with nTreg cells mainly maintaining tolerance toward self-structures, and iTreg developing in response to externally delivered antigens or commensal microbes. In addition, Treg cells acquire tissue specific features and are adapted to function in the tissue they reside. This review will focus on some specific features of Treg cells in different compartments of the body.
    Frontiers in Immunology 09/2013; 4:294. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00294
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