Protein Kinase D1 Mediates Anchorage-dependent and -independent Growth of Tumor Cells via the Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Snail1.
ABSTRACT We here identify protein kinase D1 (PKD1) as a major regulator of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of cancer cells controlled via the transcription factor Snail1. Using FRET, we demonstrate that PKD1, but not PKD2, efficiently interacts with Snail1 in nuclei. PKD1 phosphorylates Snail1 at Ser-11. There was no change in the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snail1 using wild type Snail1 and Ser-11 phosphosite mutants in different tumor cells. Regardless of its phosphorylation status or following co-expression of constitutively active PKD, Snail1 was predominantly localized to cell nuclei. We also identify a novel mechanism of PKD1-mediated regulation of Snail1 transcriptional activity in tumor cells. The interaction of the co-repressors histone deacetylases 1 and 2 as well as lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 with Snail1 was impaired when Snail1 was not phosphorylated at Ser-11, which led to reduced Snail1-associated histone deacetylase activity. Additionally, lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 expression was up-regulated by ectopic PKD1 expression, implying a synergistic regulation of Snail1-driven transcription. Ectopic expression of PKD1 also up-regulated proliferation markers such as Cyclin D1 and Ajuba. Accordingly, Snail1 and its phosphorylation at Ser-11 were required and sufficient to control PKD1-mediated anchorage-independent growth and anchorage-dependent proliferation of different tumor cells. In conclusion, our data show that PKD1 is crucial to support growth of tumor cells via Snail1.
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ABSTRACT: We here describe the structural requirements for Golgi localization and a sequential, localization-dependent activation process of protein kinase C (PKC) mu involving auto- and transphosphorylation. The structural basis for Golgi compartment localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy of HeLa cells expressing various PKC mu-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins costained with the Golgi compartment-specific markers p24 and p230. Deletions of either the NH(2)-terminal hydrophobic or the cysteine region, but not of the pleckstrin homology or the acidic domain, of PKC mu completely abrogated Golgi localization of PKC mu. As an NH(2)-terminal PKC mu fragment was colocalized with p24, this region of PKC mu is essential and sufficient to mediate association with Golgi membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies confirmed the constitutive, rapid recruitment of cytosolic PKC mu to, and stable association with, the Golgi compartment independent of activation loop phosphorylation. Kinase activity is not required for Golgi complex targeting, as evident from microscopical and cell fractionation studies with kinase-dead PKC mu found to be exclusively located at intracellular membranes. We propose a sequential activation process of PKC mu, in which Golgi compartment recruitment precedes and is essential for activation loop phosphorylation (serines 738/742) by a transacting kinase, followed by auto- and transphosphorylation of NH(2)-terminal serine(s) in the regulatory domain. PKC mu activation loop phosphorylation is indispensable for substrate phosphorylation and thus PKC mu function at the Golgi compartment.The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2002; 156(1):65-74. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selection of target substrates by protein kinases is strongly influenced by the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphoacceptor site. Identification of the preferred peptide phosphorylation motif for a given kinase permits the production of efficient peptide substrates and greatly simplifies the mapping of phosphorylation sites in protein substrates. Here we describe a combinatorial peptide library method that allows rapid generation of phosphorylation motifs for serine/threonine kinases.Nature Methods 11/2004; 1(1):27-9. · 23.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dynamic actin remodelling processes at the leading edge of migrating tumour cells are concerted events controlled by a fine-tuned temporal and spatial interplay of kinases and phosphatases. Actin severing is regulated by actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which regulates stimulus-induced lamellipodia protrusion and directed cell motility. Cofilin is activated by dephosphorylation through phosphatases of the slingshot (SSH) family. SSH activity is strongly increased by its binding to filamentous actin (F-actin); however, other upstream regulators remain unknown. Here we show that in response to RhoA activation, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) phosphorylates the SSH enzyme SSH1L at a serine residue located in its actin-binding motif. This generates a 14-3-3-binding motif and blocks the localization of SSH1L to F-actin-rich structures in the lamellipodium by sequestering it in the cytoplasm. Consequently, expression of constitutively active PKD1 in invasive tumour cells enhanced the phosphorylation of cofilin and effectively blocked the formation of free actin-filament barbed ends and directed cell migration.Nature Cell Biology 04/2009; 11(5):545-56. · 20.76 Impact Factor