Protein Kinase D1 Mediates Anchorage-dependent and -independent Growth of Tumor Cells via the Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Snail1.
ABSTRACT We here identify protein kinase D1 (PKD1) as a major regulator of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of cancer cells controlled via the transcription factor Snail1. Using FRET, we demonstrate that PKD1, but not PKD2, efficiently interacts with Snail1 in nuclei. PKD1 phosphorylates Snail1 at Ser-11. There was no change in the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snail1 using wild type Snail1 and Ser-11 phosphosite mutants in different tumor cells. Regardless of its phosphorylation status or following co-expression of constitutively active PKD, Snail1 was predominantly localized to cell nuclei. We also identify a novel mechanism of PKD1-mediated regulation of Snail1 transcriptional activity in tumor cells. The interaction of the co-repressors histone deacetylases 1 and 2 as well as lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 with Snail1 was impaired when Snail1 was not phosphorylated at Ser-11, which led to reduced Snail1-associated histone deacetylase activity. Additionally, lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 expression was up-regulated by ectopic PKD1 expression, implying a synergistic regulation of Snail1-driven transcription. Ectopic expression of PKD1 also up-regulated proliferation markers such as Cyclin D1 and Ajuba. Accordingly, Snail1 and its phosphorylation at Ser-11 were required and sufficient to control PKD1-mediated anchorage-independent growth and anchorage-dependent proliferation of different tumor cells. In conclusion, our data show that PKD1 is crucial to support growth of tumor cells via Snail1.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer cell invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis are major challenges for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Protein Kinase D (PKD) isoforms are involved in controlling tumor cell motility, angiogenesis and metastasis. In particular PKD2 expression is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer, whereas PKD1 expression is lower. We here report that both kinases control pancreatic cancer cell invasive properties in an isoform-specific manner. PKD2 enhances invasion in 3D-ECM cultures by stimulating expression and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinase 7 and 9 (MMP7/9), whereby MMP7 is likely to act upstream of MMP9. Knockdown of MMP7/9 blocks PKD2-mediated invasion in 3D-ECM assays and in-vivo utilizing tumors growing on chorioallantois membranes (CAM). Furthermore, MMP9 enhances PKD2-mediated tumor angiogenesis by releasing extracellular matrix-bound VEGF-A, thereby increasing its bio-availability and angiogenesis. Interestingly, specific knockdown of PKD1 in PKD2-expressing pancreatic cancer cells further enhanced the invasive properties in 3D-ECM systems by generating a high-motility phenotype. Loss of PKD1 thus may be beneficial for tumor cells to enhance their matrix-invading abilities. In conclusion, we define for the first time PKD1 and -2 isoform-selective effects on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis, in-vitro and in-vivo, addressing PKD isoform-specificity as a major factor for future therapeutic strategies.Molecular biology of the cell 12/2013; · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ductal epithelium plays a key role in physiological secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the digestive system. Loss of barrier properties of the pancreatic duct may contribute to the development of pancreatitis and metastatic dissemination of pancreatic tumors. Proinflammatory cytokines are essential mediators of pancreatic inflammation and tumor progression; however, their effects on the integrity and barrier properties of the ductal epithelium have not been previously addressed. In the present study, we investigate mechanisms of cytokine-induced disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in a model pancreatic epithelium. Exposure of HPAF-II human pancreatic epithelial cell monolayers to interferon (IFN)γ disrupted integrity and function of apical junctions as manifested by increased epithelial permeability and cytosolic translocation of AJ and TJ proteins. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α potentiated the effects of IFNγ on pancreatic epithelial junctions. The cytokine-induced increase in epithelial permeability and AJ/TJ disassembly was attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) and protein kinase D (PKD). Loss of apical junctions in IFNγ/TNFα-treated HPAF-II cells was accompanied by JAK and PKD dependent decrease in expression of AJ (E-cadherin, p120 catenin) and TJ (occludin, ZO-1) proteins. Depletion of E-cadherin or p120 catenin recapitulated the effects of cytokines on HPAF-II cell permeability and junctions. Our data suggests that proinflammatory cytokines disrupt pancreatic epithelial barrier via expressional downregulation of key structural components of AJs and TJs. This mechanism is likely to be important for pancreatic inflammatory injury and tumorigenesis.Tissue barriers. 10/2013; 1(4):e25231.
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ABSTRACT: DNA methylation-induced silencing of genes encoding tumor suppressors is common in many types of cancer, but little is known about how such epigenetic silencing can contribute to tumor metastasis. The PRKD1 gene encodes protein kinase D1 (PKD1), a serine/threonine kinase that is expressed in cells of the normal mammary gland, where it maintains the epithelial phenotype by preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The status of PRKD1 promoter methylation was analyzed by reduced representation bisulfite deep sequencing, methylation-specific PCR (MSP-PCR) and in situ MSP-PCR in invasive and noninvasive breast cancer lines, as well as in humans in 34 cases of "normal" tissue, 22 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ, 22 cases of estrogen receptor positive, HER2-negative (ER+/HER2-) invasive lobular carcinoma, 43 cases of ER+/HER2- invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 93 cases of HER2+ IDC and 96 cases of triple-negative IDC. A reexpression strategy using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine was used in vitro in MDA-MB-231 cells as well as in vivo in a tumor xenograft model and measured by RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The effect of PKD1 reexpression on cell invasion was analyzed in vitro by transwell invasion assay. Tumor growth and metastasis were monitored in vivo using the IVIS Spectrum Pre-clinical In Vivo Imaging System. Herein we show that the gene promoter of PRKD1 is aberrantly methylated and silenced in its expression in invasive breast cancer cells and during breast tumor progression, increasing with the aggressiveness of tumors. Using an animal model, we show that reversion of PRKD1 promoter methylation with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine restores PKD1 expression and blocks tumor spread and metastasis to the lung in a PKD1-dependent fashion. Our data suggest that the status of epigenetic regulation of the PRKD1 promoter can provide valid information on the invasiveness of breast tumors and therefore could serve as an early diagnostic marker. Moreover, targeted upregulation of PKD1 expression may be used as a therapeutic approach to reverse the invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells.Breast cancer research: BCR 08/2013; 15(2):R66. · 5.87 Impact Factor