Protein Kinase D1 Mediates Anchorage-dependent and -independent Growth of Tumor Cells via the Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Snail1.
ABSTRACT We here identify protein kinase D1 (PKD1) as a major regulator of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of cancer cells controlled via the transcription factor Snail1. Using FRET, we demonstrate that PKD1, but not PKD2, efficiently interacts with Snail1 in nuclei. PKD1 phosphorylates Snail1 at Ser-11. There was no change in the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snail1 using wild type Snail1 and Ser-11 phosphosite mutants in different tumor cells. Regardless of its phosphorylation status or following co-expression of constitutively active PKD, Snail1 was predominantly localized to cell nuclei. We also identify a novel mechanism of PKD1-mediated regulation of Snail1 transcriptional activity in tumor cells. The interaction of the co-repressors histone deacetylases 1 and 2 as well as lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 with Snail1 was impaired when Snail1 was not phosphorylated at Ser-11, which led to reduced Snail1-associated histone deacetylase activity. Additionally, lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 expression was up-regulated by ectopic PKD1 expression, implying a synergistic regulation of Snail1-driven transcription. Ectopic expression of PKD1 also up-regulated proliferation markers such as Cyclin D1 and Ajuba. Accordingly, Snail1 and its phosphorylation at Ser-11 were required and sufficient to control PKD1-mediated anchorage-independent growth and anchorage-dependent proliferation of different tumor cells. In conclusion, our data show that PKD1 is crucial to support growth of tumor cells via Snail1.
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ABSTRACT: About 70% of human breast cancers express and are dependent for growth on estrogen receptor α (ERα), and therefore are sensitive to antiestrogen therapies. However, progression to an advanced, more aggressive phenotype is associated with acquisition of resistance to antiestrogens and/or invasive potential. In this study, we highlight the role of the serine/threonine-protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in ERα-positive breast cancers. Growth of ERα-positive MCF-7 and MDA-MB-415 human breast cancer cells was assayed in adherent or anchorage-independent conditions in cells overexpressing or depleted for PKD1. PKD1 induces cell growth through both an ERα-dependent manner, by increasing ERα expression and cell sensitivity to 17β-estradiol, and an ERα-independent manner, by reducing cell dependence to estrogens and conferring partial resistance to antiestrogen ICI 182,780. PKD1 knockdown in MDA-MB-415 cells strongly reduced estrogen-dependent and independent invasion. Quantification of PKD1 mRNA levels in 38 cancerous and non-cancerous breast cell lines and in 152 ERα-positive breast tumours from patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen showed an association between PKD1 and ERα expression in 76.3% (29/38) of the breast cell lines tested and a strong correlation between PKD1 expression and invasiveness (P < 0.0001). In tamoxifen-treated patients, tumours with high PKD1 mRNA levels (n = 77, 50.66%) were significantly associated with less metastasis-free survival than tumours with low PKD1 mRNA expression (n = 75, 49.34%; P = 0.031). Moreover, PKD1 mRNA levels are strongly positively associated with EGFR and vimentin levels (P < 0.0000001). Thus, our study defines PKD1 as a novel attractive prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; 18(12). DOI:10.1111/jcmm.12322 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastatic dissemination is often initiated by the reactivation of an embryonic development program referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor SNAIL promotes EMT and elicits associated pathological characteristics such as invasion, metastasis, and stemness. To better understand the posttranslational regulation of SNAIL, we performed a luciferase-based, genome-wide E3 ligase siRNA library screen and identified SCF-FBXO11 as an important E3 that targets SNAIL for ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, we discovered that SNAIL degradation by FBXO11 is dependent on Ser-11 phosphorylation of SNAIL by protein kinase D1 (PKD1). FBXO11 blocks SNAIL-induced EMT, tumor initiation, and metastasis in multiple breast cancer models. These findings establish the PKD1-FBXO11-SNAIL axis as a mechanism of posttranslational regulation of EMT and cancer metastasis.Cancer Cell 09/2014; 26(3):358-373. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.022 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) consists of a rapid change of cell phenotype, characterized by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a more invasive phenotype. Transcription factors regulating EMT (Snail, Twist and Zeb) are extremely labile proteins, rapidly degraded by the proteasome system. In this review we analyze the current mechanisms controlling degradation of EMT transcription factors, focusing on the role of new E3 ubiquitin-ligases involved in EMT. We also summarize the regulation of the stability of these EMT transcription factors, specially observed in different stress conditions, such as hypoxia, chemotherapeutic drugs, oxidative stress or γ-irradiation.Cell adhesion & migration 10/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.4161/19336918.2014.969998 · 3.40 Impact Factor