Different V˙O2max Time-Averaging Intervals in Swimming

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal.
International Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.07). 07/2012; 33(12). DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1316362
Source: PubMed


We aimed to determine the effect of sampling interval strategy on V˙O2max assessment to establish a standard time averaging method that allows a better identification of the V˙O2 plateau incidence in swimming. To this end, 3 incremental protocols utilizing different step lengths for each sampling interval were used to compare V˙O2max measurements. 11 trained male swimmers performed 3 repetitions of a front crawl intermittent incremental protocol until exhaustion (increments of 0.05 m.s - 1, with 30 s and 24-48 h intervals between steps and tests, respectively) with 200, 300 and 400-m step lengths. V˙O2 was directly measured, and 6 sampling intervals were compared: bxb and averages of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 s. Shorter sampling intervals (≤15 s) allowed the highest incidence of the V˙O2 plateau, independent of the step lengths used; the 200 and 300-m step protocols accounted for higher percentage of V˙O2 plateau incidence, and higher V˙O2max values, compared to the 400-m step protocol. As an optimal sampling interval should be used for the validation of the research findings, and considering that swimmers and coaches prefer less time-consuming protocols, the use of the 10 s time-average interval (once bxb and 5 s samplings present high variability) in a 200-m step incremental protocol for V˙O2max assessment in swimming is suggested.

Download full-text


Available from: Laura Guidetti, Oct 06, 2015
1 Follower
52 Reads
  • Source
    • "Firstly, occasional VO2 breath values were omitted from the analysis by including only those in-between VO2  mean ± 4 standard deviations. After verification of the data, individual breath-by-breath VO2 responses were smoothed by using a 3-breath moving average and time average of 5 s [21]. For VO2 kinetics analysis, the first 20 s of data after the onset of exercise (cardiodynamic phase) were not considered for model analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A bioenergetical analysis of swimming at intensities near competitive distances is inexistent. It was aimed to compare the transient VO2 kinetics responses and metabolic contributions whilst swimming at different velocities around VO2max⁡. 12 trained male swimmers performed (i) an incremental protocol to determine the velocity at VO2max⁡ (vVO2max⁡) and (ii) three square wave exercises from rest to 95, 100, and 105% of vVO2max⁡. VO2 was directly measured using a telemetric portable gas analyser and its kinetics analysed through a double-exponential model. Metabolic contributions were assessed through the sum of three energy components. No differences were observed in the fast component response (τ 1-15, 18, and 16 s, A 1-36, 34, and 37 mL · kg(-1) · min⁡(-1), and Gain-32, 29, and 30 mL · min⁡(-1) at 95, 100, and 105% of the vVO2max⁡, resp.) but A2 was higher in 95 and 100% compared to 105% intensity (480.76 ± 247.01, 452.18 ± 217.04, and 147.04 ± 60.40 mL · min⁡(-1), resp.). The aerobic energy contribution increased with the time sustained (83 ± 5, 74 ± 6, and 59 ± 7% for 95, 100, and 105%, resp.). The adjustment of the cardiovascular and/or pulmonary systems that determine O2 delivery and diffusion to the exercising muscles did not change with changing intensity, with the exception of VO2 slow component kinetics metabolic profiles.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014(2). DOI:10.1155/2014/675363 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "During the recovery period, expired air was continuously measured until _ VO 2 basal values were reached. Expired gas concentrations were collected breath-by-breath, and afterwards , to omit errant breaths (e.g., swallowing and coughing) and to reduce the noise typical from this acquisition, data were edited according to previously described procedures (Fernandes et al. 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the anaerobic alactic contribution in a 200 m middle distance swimming trial by means of two different methods based: (1) on the fast component of the [Formula: see text] off-kinetics (Anarecovery) and (2) on the kinetics of maximal phosphocreatine splitting in the contracting muscle (Anapcr). Ten elite male swimmers performed a 200 m front crawl trial at maximal velocity during which [Formula: see text]was directly measured using a telemetric portable gas analyser; during the recovery period [Formula: see text] data were collected until baseline values were reached. No significant differences between the two methods were observed; mean ± SD values were 31.7 ± 2.5 and 32.6 ± 2.8 kJ, for Anapcr and Anarecovery, respectively. Despite the existence of some caveats regarding both methods for estimation of the anaerobic alactic contribution, data reported in this study indicate that both yield similar results and both allow to estimate this contribution in supra-maximal swimming trials. This has important implications on swimming energetics, since the non-inclusion of the anaerobic alactic contribution to total metabolic energy expenditure leads to an underestimation of the energy cost at supra-maximal speeds.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 04/2013; 113(8). DOI:10.1007/s00421-013-2646-3 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, it should be taken into account that the breath-by-breath gas acquisition could induce a significant variability of the VO 2 values acquired. Moreover, while Sousa et al. [10] evidenced significant differences between the two shortest sampling intervals (breath by breath and 5s), Fernandes et al. [6] only reported significant differences between the breath by breath and time sampling interval of 10, 15 and 20s, and between time sampling interval of 5 and 20s. These apparently incongruent results may be due to the distinct swimming intensities at which both efforts occurred. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sousa et al. (Open Sports Sci J, 3: 22-24, 2010) showed that different time averaging intervals lead to distinct VO2 values in a maximal 200m front crawl effort, evidencing higher VO2 values for breath-by-breath sampling, and differences between this latter data acquisition and all the other less frequent time intervals studied (5, 10, 15 and 20 s). These are interesting outputs in the field of exercise physiology applied to swimming once: (1) VO2 assessment is conducted in a swimming pool with a portable gas analyser which allowed breath-by-breath measurements, and not in a swimming flume with a Douglas bag technique or mixing chamber analyser, as traditionally occurs, and (2) the comparison between different time-averaging intervals used to remove breath-by-breath fluctuations during exercise periods has remained neglected, in sport in general and swimming in particular. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the influence that different time averaging intervals have in aerobic power related parameters (VO2peak and VO2max). Ten subjects performed 200m front crawl effort at supra-maximal intensities (all-out test) and other ten subjects performed 200m front crawl effort at maximal aerobic intensities (100% of VO2max).The intensity at which the 200m front crawl was performed (supra-maximal and maximal intensities) had a significant effect on VO2peak and VO2max values obtained for each averaging intervals studied.
    The Open Sports Sciences Journal 01/2013; 6(Epub ahead of print).
Show more