Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta: clinical, radiological, and molecular findings.
ABSTRACT Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) or "brittle bone disease" is currently best described as a group of hereditary connective tissue disorders related to primary defects in type I procollagen, and to alterations in type I procollagen biosynthesis, both associated with osteoporosis and increased susceptibility to bone fractures. Initially, the autosomal dominant forms of OI, caused by mutations in either COL1A1 or COL1A2, were described. However, for decades, the molecular defect of a small percentage of patients clinically diagnosed with OI has remained elusive. It has been in the last 6 years that the genetic causes of several forms of OI with autosomal recessive inheritance have been characterized. These comprise defects of collagen chaperones, and proteins involved in type I procollagen assembly, processing and maturation, as well as proteins involved in the formation and homeostasis of bone tissue. This article reviews the recently characterized forms of recessive OI, focusing in particular on their clinical and molecular findings, and on their radiological characterisation. Clinical management and treatment of OI in general will be discussed, too.
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ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe juvenile-onset osteoporosis and congenital or juvenile-onset blindness. The pathogenic mechanism is not known. Clinical, biochemical, and microscopic analyses suggest that OPS may be a disorder of matrix homeostasis rather than a disorder of matrix structure. Consequently, identification of the OPS gene and its protein product could provide insights regarding common osteoporotic conditions, such as postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. As a first step toward determining the cause of OPS, we utilized a combination of traditional linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping to assign the OPS locus to chromosome region 11q12-13. Mapping was accomplished by analyzing 16 DNA samples (seven affected individuals) from three different consanguineous kindreds. Studies in 10 additional families narrowed the candidate region, supported locus homogeneity, and did not detect founder effects. The OPS locus maps to a 13-cM interval between D11S1298 and D11S971 and most likely lies in a 3-cM region between GSTP1 and D11S1296. At present, no strong candidate genes colocalize with OPS.The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/1996; 59(1):146-51. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common of the inherited connective tissue disorders that primarily affect bone. However, it is a systemic disorder, as evidenced by the occurrence of ocular complications, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hearing loss, joint laxity, restrictive pulmonary disease, and short stature. The OI classification initially included four phenotypes (I-IV) involving COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations. Three new phenotypes have been added, of which one, type VII, is the result of mutations of the cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) gene. Investigation of recessive forms of OI particularly reported among South African blacks have revealed mutations involving both the CRTAP gene and the leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 (LEPRE1) gene, each involved in collagen proline-3 hydroxylation. Issues related to the treatment of OI with bisphosphonates involve patient selection, evaluation of the results of treatment, and the duration of treatment. Also, questions exist regarding the difference in treatment response between children and adults with OI. Other treatment options, such as recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34), Rank ligand inhibitors, and stem cell technology, are being evaluated or are of future investigative interest.Current Osteoporosis Reports 10/2007; 5(3):91-7.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment in infants with severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Of 10 children (6 females) with OI type III, 5 (group A) started treatment (2 mg/kg neridronate administered intravenously for 2 consecutive days, every 3 months) just after diagnosis at birth and 5 (group B) after 6 months. Ten untreated children, matched for sex, age, and clinical severity of OI, constituted a historical control group (group C). We measured weight, length, and number of fractures every 3 months and serum and urinary levels of calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, serum alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor I, parathyroid hormone, and osteocalcin, urinary type I collagen N-terminal telopeptide, and lateral radiography of vertebral column every 6 months. Group A had better growth and a lower incidence of fractures than groups B and C in the first 6 months of treatment. In the second 6 months, both groups A and B had lower fracture rates than group C. After 12 months of therapy, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I levels significantly increased only in group A. The urinary Ca/Cr ratio and N-terminal telopeptide/Cr ratio significantly declined only in treated patients. Vertebral body area and the structure of vertebral bodies improved in all treated patients, but especially in group A. Cyclical neridronate treatment, started just after diagnosis at birth, had positive effects on growth and fracture rate.Journal of Pediatrics 09/2006; 149(2):174-9. · 4.04 Impact Factor