Human TSC-associated renal angiomyolipoma cells are hypersensitive to ER stress
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 3333 Burnet Ave., MLC 7022, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039. . AJP Renal Physiology
(Impact Factor: 3.25).
07/2012; 303(6):F831-44. DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00441.2011
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome associated with mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, affects ∼1 in 6,000 individuals. Eighty percent of TSC patients develop renal angiomyolipomas, and renal involvement is a major contributor to patient morbidity and mortality. Recent work has shown that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition caused angiomyolipoma shrinkage but that this treatment may cause cytostatic not a cytotoxic effect. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can develop in TSC-associated cells due to mTORC1-driven protein translation. We hypothesized that renal angiomyolipoma cells experience ER stress that can be leveraged to result in targeted cytotoxicity. We used immortalized human angiomyolipoma cells stably transfected with empty vector or TSC2 (encoding tuberin). Using cell number quantification and cell death assays, we found that mTORC1 inhibition with RAD001 suppressed angiomyolipoma cell proliferation in a cytostatic manner. Angiomyolipoma cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to proteasome inhibitor-induced ER stress compared with TSC2-rescued cells. After proteasome inhibition with MG-132, Western blot analyses showed greater induction of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and more poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage, supporting ER stress-induced apoptosis. Live cell numbers also were decreased and cell death increased by MG-132 in angiomyolipoma cells compared with TSC2 rescued. Intriguingly, while pretreatment of angiomyolipoma cells with RAD001 attenuated CHOP and BiP induction, apoptotic markers cleaved PARP and caspase-3 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation were increased, along with evidence of increased autophagy. These results suggest that human angiomyolipoma cells are uniquely susceptible to agents that exacerbate ER stress and that additional synergy may be achievable with targeted combination therapy.
Available from: ajprenal.physiology.org
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ABSTRACT: Nearly all patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop renal angiomyolipomas, although the tumor cell of origin is unknown. We observed decreased renal angiomyolipoma development in patients with the TSC2-PKD1 deletion syndrome and hypertension that were treated from an early age with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas expressed angiotensin II type 1 receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor β and VEGFR2, but did not express the adipocyte marker S100 or the endothelial marker CD31. Sera of TSC patients exhibited increased vascular mural cell secreted peptides such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) D, sVEGFR2, and collagen IV. These findings suggest that angiomyolipomas may arise from renal pericytes. Angiotensin II treatment of angiomyolipoma cells in vitro resulted in an exaggerated intracellular calcium response and increased proliferation that were blocked by the angiotensin type II receptor 1 antagonist valsartan. Blockade of angiotensin II signaling may have preventative therapeutic potential for angiomyolipomas.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 06/2014; 307(5). DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00569.2013 · 3.25 Impact Factor
Available from: Andrew R Tee
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ABSTRACT: Inappropriate activation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is common in cancer and has many cellular consequences including elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Cells employ autophagy as a critical compensatory survival mechanism during ER stress. This study utilised drug-induced ER stress through nelfinavir in order to examine ER stress tolerance in cell lines with hyper-active mTORC1 signalling. Our initial findings in wild type cells showed nelfinavir inhibited mTORC1 signalling and upregulated autophagy, as determined by decreased rpS6 and S6K1 phosphorylation, and SQTSM1 protein expression, respectively. Contrastingly, cells with hyper-active mTORC1 displayed basally elevated levels of ER stress which was greatly exaggerated following nelfinavir treatment, seen through increased CHOP mRNA and XBP1 splicing. To further enhance the effects of nelfinavir, we introduced chloroquine as an autophagy inhibitor. Combination of nelfinavir and chloroquine significantly increased ER stress and caused selective cell death in multiple cell line models with hyper-active mTORC1, whilst control cells with normalised mTORC1 signalling tolerated treatment. By comparing chloroquine to other autophagy inhibitors, we uncovered that selective toxicity invoked by chloroquine was independent of autophagy inhibition yet entrapment of chloroquine to acidified lysosomal/endosomal compartments was necessary for cytotoxicity. Our research demonstrates that combination of nelfinavir and chloroquine has therapeutic potential for treatment of mTORC1-driven tumours.
Molecular Oncology 11/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2014.11.005 · 5.33 Impact Factor
Available from: affymetrix.com
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) genes cause the genetic disorder TSC, as well as other neoplasms, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipomas (AMLs). AMLs are benign renal tumors occur both in sporadic LAM and in TSC. As they carry the same mutations, AML cell lines serve as a model for TSC and LAM. Rheb/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is chronically activated in TSC-deficient cells, and this activation can be diminished using the appropriate inhibitors. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a known specific inhibitor of mTORC1, whereas S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; salirasib) has been shown to inhibit Rheb. To examine the effect of the Rheb/mTOR inhibition pathway, we used human TSC2-deficient AML cells, derived from a LAM patient. FTS indeed inhibited Rheb in these cells and attenuated their proliferation. After comparative treatments with FTS or rapamycin or by re-expression of TSC2, we carried out a gene array analysis. This yielded a substantial number of commonly altered genes, many of which we identified as downstream targets of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) transcription factor, a central activator of the IFN type 1 immune response. Furthermore, nuclear localization of IRF7 was impaired by each of the three treatments. Interestingly, the phenomena seen on FTS or rapamycin treatment were selective for TSC2-deficient cells. Moreover, knockdown of IRF7 by siRNA mimicked the decrease in number of the abovementioned genes and also inhibited AML cell proliferation. Altogether, these findings support FTS as a potential treatment for TSC and its related pathologies and IRF7 as a novel target for treatment.
Cell Death & Disease 12/2014; 5(12):e1557. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2014.502 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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