(1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-Cembratetraen-17,2-olide, a Cembrenolide Diterpene from Soft Coral Lobophytum sp., Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Generation
We observed that (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-Cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1), marine cembrenolide diterpene, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells via a reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent mechanism. Treatment of HT-29 cells with LS-1 resulted in ROS generation, which was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, sub-G1 peak accumulation, activation of Bid, caspase-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) along with the suppressive expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). All these effects were significantly blocked on pretreatment with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC), indicating the involvement of increased ROS in the proapoptotic activity of LS-1. Moreover, we showed that LS-1 induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and dephosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, Src and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, which were effectively attenuated by NAC. In addition, the expressions of antioxidant catalase and glutathione peroxidase were abrogated by treatment using LS-1 with or without NAC. These findings reveal the novel anticancer efficacy of LS-1 mediated by the induction of apoptosis via ROS generation in human colon cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical examination of a South China Sea soft coral Lobophytum sp. led to the isolation of three new α-methylene-γ-lactone-containing cembranoids, (1R*,3R*, 4R*,14R*,7E,11E)-3,4-epoxycembra-7,11,15(17)-trien-16,14-olide (1), (1R*,7S*,14S*,3E, 11E)-7-hydroperoxycembra-3,8(19),11,15(17)-tetraen-16,14-olide (2), and (1R*,7S*,14S*, 3E,11E)-18-acetoxy-7-hydroperoxycembra-3,8(19),11,15(17)-tetraen-16,14-olide (3), along with eleven known analogues 4-14. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against the selected tumor cell lines. Moreover, 2 and 3 were found to be moderate inhibitors against the bacteria S. aureus and S. pneumoniae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticancer effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1) from Lobophytum sp. has been already reported in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction of SNU-C5/5-FU, fluorouracil-resistant human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated whether the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 could arise from the activation of the TGF-β pathway. In SNU-C5/5-FU treated with LS-1 of 7.1 μM (IC50), we could observe the various apoptotic characteristics, such as the increase of apoptotic bodies, the increase of the sub-G1 hypodiploid cell population, the decrease of the Bcl-2 level, the increase of procaspase-9 cleavage, the increase of procaspase-3 cleavage and the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Interestingly, the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 was also accompanied by the increase of Smad-3 phosphorylation and the downregulation of c-Myc in SNU-C5/5-FU. LS-1 also increased the nuclear localization of phospho-Smad-3 and Smad-4. We examined whether LS-1 could downregulate the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a direct inhibitor of TGF-β signaling. LS-1 decreased the CEA level, as well as the direct interaction between CEA and TGF-βR1 in the apoptosis-induction condition of SNU-C5/5-FU. To examine whether LS-1 can induce apoptosis via the activation of TGF-β signaling, the SNU-C5/5-FU cells were treated with LS-1 in the presence or absence of SB525334, a TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor. SB525334 inhibited the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 results from the activation of the TGF-β pathway via the downregulation of CEA in SNU-C5/5-FU.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Part of our ocean's richness comes from its extensive history of supporting life, resulting in a highly diverse ecological system. To date, over 250,000 species of marine organisms have been identified, but it is speculated that the actual number of marine species exceeds one million, including several hundreds of millions of species of marine microorganisms. Past studies suggest that approximately 70% of all deep-sea microorganisms, gorgonians, and sea sponges produce secondary metabolites with anti-cancer activities. Recently, novel FDA-approved drugs derived from marine sponges have been shown to reduce metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Despite the fact that many marine natural products have been shown to possess a good inhibition potential against most of the cancer-related cell signaling pathways, only a few marine natural products have
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