Enterotomy risk in abdominal wall repair: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT To establish the incidence and predictive factors of enterotomy made during adhesiolysis in abdominal wall repair and to assess the impact of enterotomies and long-lasting adhesiolysis on postoperative morbidity such as sepsis, wound infection, abdominal complications and pneumonia, and socioeconomic costs.
Adhesions frequently complicate surgical repair of abdominal wall hernia. Enterotomies made during adhesiolysis specifically have a large impact on morbidity of patients, especially surgical site infections. Little is known on the incidence and burden of enterotomies and long-lasting adhesiolysis in abdominal wall repair.
Between June 2008 and June 2010 demographics, disease characteristics and perioperative data of all patients undergoing elective abdominal wall repair were included in a prospective cohort study that was focused on adhesiolysis-related problems. A trained researcher observed all surgeries and collected data on adhesion location, tenacity, adhesiolysis time, and inadvertent organ damage such as enterotomies. Primary outcome was the incidence of enterotomy, and predictive factors for enterotomy were assessed through univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, we evaluated the impact of adhesiolysis and enterotomy on morbidity.
A cohort of 133 abdominal wall repairs was analyzed. Adhesiolysis was required in 124 (93.2%), with a mean adhesiolysis time of 35.7 ± 29.8 minutes. Thirty-three enterotomies were made in 17 patients (12.8%). Two patients had a delayed diagnosed bowel perforation. Adhesiolysis time, hernia size greater than 10 cm, and fistula were significant predictive factors in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only adhesiolysis time was a significant and independent predictive factor for enterotomy (P = 0.004). Trends toward an increased risk were seen for patients with mesh in situ and hernia size greater than 10 cm. Patients with enterotomy had significantly more urgent reoperations (P = 0.029), and they more often required parenteral feeding (P = 0.037). Moreover, patients with extensive adhesiolysis (adhesiolysis time, >30 minutes) more often suffered from wound infection (9/63 vs 2/70; P = 0.025), abdominal complications (5/63 vs 0/70; P = 0.022), and sepsis (4/63 vs 0/70; P = 0.048).
One in 8 patients undergoing abdominal wall repair suffer inadvertent enterotomy following adhesiolysis. Adhesiolysis time predicts enterotomy. Morbidity in patients with extensive adhesiolysis and adhesiolysis complicated by enterotomy is high, inducing longer hospital stay and increased health care utilization.
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair has been reported in a number of small trials to have equivalent or superior outcomes to open repair. Randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic and open incisional or ventral hernia repair with mesh that included data on effectiveness and safety were included in a meta-analysis. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. There was no difference between groups in hernia recurrence rates (relative risk 1.02 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.41 to 2.54)). Duration of surgery varied. Mean length of hospital stay was shorter after laparoscopic repair in six of the included studies; the longest mean stay was 5.7 days for laparoscopic and 10 days for open surgery. Laparoscopic hernia repair was associated with fewer wound infections (relative risk 0.22 (95 per cent c.i. 0.09 to 0.54)), and a trend toward fewer haemorrhagic complications and infections requiring mesh removal. Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernia is at least as effective, if not superior to, the open approach in a number of outcomes.British Journal of Surgery 09/2009; 96(8):851-8. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most enterocutaneous fistulas are postoperative in origin. Sepsis, malnutrition, and hydroelectrolytic deficit are still the most important complications to which patients with postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas (PEF) are exposed. Knowledge of prognostic factors related to specific outcomes is essential for therapeutic decision-making processes. We reviewed files of all consecutive patients with PEF treated in our hospital during a 10-year period. Our aim was to identify factors related to spontaneous closure, need for operative treatment, and mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 174 patients were treated. The most frequent site of origin was the small bowel (90 patients: 48 jejunal, and 42 ileal), followed in frequency by the colon (50 patients). Postoperative enterocutaneous fistula closure was achieved in 151 patients (86%), being spontaneous in 65 (37%) and surgical in 86 (49%). Factors that significantly precluded spontaneous closure were jejunal site, multiple fistulas, sepsis, high output, and hydroelectrolytic deficit at diagnosis or referral. Origin of PEF at our hospital was the only factor significantly associated with spontaneous closure. The most frequent operative indication was PEF persistence without sepsis. Factors significantly associated with the need for operative treatment were high output, jejunal site, and multiple fistulas. Closure was achieved in 84% of patients who underwent operation. A total of 23 patients died (13%). Factors associated with mortality were serum albumin <3.0 g/dl (at diagnosis or referral), high output, hydroelectrolytic deficit, multiple fistulas, jejunal site, sepsis, and a complex fistulous tract. In spite of advances in management of PEF, the associated morbidity and mortality remain high. Among several variables influencing outcome, our multivariate analysis disclosed high output, jejunal site, multiple fistulas, and sepsis as independent adverse factors related to non-spontaneous closure, need for operative treatment, and/or death.World Journal of Surgery 03/2008; 32(3):436-43; discussion 444. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the best treatment of incisional hernia, taking into account recurrence, complications, discomfort, cosmetic result, and patient satisfaction. Long-term results of incisional hernia repair are lacking. Retrospective studies and the midterm results of this study indicate that mesh repair is superior to suture repair. However, many surgeons are still performing suture repair. Between 1992 and 1998, a multicenter trial was performed, in which 181 eligible patients with a primary or first-time recurrent midline incisional hernia were randomly assigned to suture or mesh repair. In 2003, follow-up was updated. Median follow-up was 75 months for suture repair and 81 months for mesh repair patients. The 10-year cumulative rate of recurrence was 63% for suture repair and 32% for mesh repair (P < 0.001). Abdominal aneurysm (P = 0.01) and wound infection (P = 0.02) were identified as independent risk factors for recurrence. In patients with small incisional hernias, the recurrence rates were 67% after suture repair and 17% after mesh repair (P = 0.003). One hundred twenty-six patients completed long-term follow-up (median follow-up 98 months). In the mesh repair group, 17% suffered a complication, compared with 8% in the suture repair group (P = 0.17). Abdominal pain was more frequent in suture repair patients (P = 0.01), but there was no difference in scar pain, cosmetic result, and patient satisfaction. Mesh repair results in a lower recurrence rate and less abdominal pain and does not result in more complications than suture repair. Suture repair of incisional hernia should be abandoned.Annals of Surgery 11/2004; 240(4):578-83; discussion 583-5. · 6.33 Impact Factor