Enterotomy risk in abdominal wall repair: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT To establish the incidence and predictive factors of enterotomy made during adhesiolysis in abdominal wall repair and to assess the impact of enterotomies and long-lasting adhesiolysis on postoperative morbidity such as sepsis, wound infection, abdominal complications and pneumonia, and socioeconomic costs.
Adhesions frequently complicate surgical repair of abdominal wall hernia. Enterotomies made during adhesiolysis specifically have a large impact on morbidity of patients, especially surgical site infections. Little is known on the incidence and burden of enterotomies and long-lasting adhesiolysis in abdominal wall repair.
Between June 2008 and June 2010 demographics, disease characteristics and perioperative data of all patients undergoing elective abdominal wall repair were included in a prospective cohort study that was focused on adhesiolysis-related problems. A trained researcher observed all surgeries and collected data on adhesion location, tenacity, adhesiolysis time, and inadvertent organ damage such as enterotomies. Primary outcome was the incidence of enterotomy, and predictive factors for enterotomy were assessed through univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, we evaluated the impact of adhesiolysis and enterotomy on morbidity.
A cohort of 133 abdominal wall repairs was analyzed. Adhesiolysis was required in 124 (93.2%), with a mean adhesiolysis time of 35.7 ± 29.8 minutes. Thirty-three enterotomies were made in 17 patients (12.8%). Two patients had a delayed diagnosed bowel perforation. Adhesiolysis time, hernia size greater than 10 cm, and fistula were significant predictive factors in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only adhesiolysis time was a significant and independent predictive factor for enterotomy (P = 0.004). Trends toward an increased risk were seen for patients with mesh in situ and hernia size greater than 10 cm. Patients with enterotomy had significantly more urgent reoperations (P = 0.029), and they more often required parenteral feeding (P = 0.037). Moreover, patients with extensive adhesiolysis (adhesiolysis time, >30 minutes) more often suffered from wound infection (9/63 vs 2/70; P = 0.025), abdominal complications (5/63 vs 0/70; P = 0.022), and sepsis (4/63 vs 0/70; P = 0.048).
One in 8 patients undergoing abdominal wall repair suffer inadvertent enterotomy following adhesiolysis. Adhesiolysis time predicts enterotomy. Morbidity in patients with extensive adhesiolysis and adhesiolysis complicated by enterotomy is high, inducing longer hospital stay and increased health care utilization.
- SourceAvailable from: Haytham M A Kaafarani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is currently no systematic approach to evaluating the severity of intraoperative adverse events (iAEs). A 3-phase project was designed to develop and validate a novel severity classification scheme for iAEs. Phase 1 created the severity classification using a modified Delphi process. Phase 2 measured the classification's internal consistency by calculating inter-rater reliability among 91 surgeons using standardized iAEs scenarios. Phase 3 measured the classification's construct validity by testing whether major iAEs (severity class ≥3) correlated with worse 30-day postoperative outcomes compared with minor iAEs (severity class <3). This was achieved by creating a matched database using American College of Surgeons NSQIP and administrative data, querying for iAEs using the Patient Safety Indicator #15 (Accidental Puncture/Laceration), and iAE confirmation by chart review. Phase 1 resulted in a 6-point severity classification scheme. Phase 2 revealed an inter-rater reliability of 0.882. Of 9,292 patients, phase 3 included 181 confirmed with iAEs. All preoperative/intraoperative variables, including demographics, comorbidities, type of surgery performed, and operative length, were similar between patients with minor (n = 110) vs major iAEs (n = 71). In multivariable logistic analysis, severe iAEs correlated with higher risks of any postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4; p < 0.001), surgical site infections (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.7-8.2; p = 0.001), systemic sepsis (OR = 6.0; 95% CI, 2.1-17.2; p = 0.001), failure to wean off the ventilator (OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9; p = 0.022), and postoperative length of stay ≥7 days (OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; p = 0.002). Thirty-day mortalities were similar (4.5% vs 7.1%; p = 0.46). We propose a novel iAE severity classification system with high internal consistency and solid construct validity. Our classification scheme might prove essential for benchmarking quality of intraoperative care across hospitals and/or individual surgeons.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate of postoperative adhesion prevention and inflammatory response to polypropylene mesh, coated with reabsorbable hydrogel of polyethylene glycol (Coseal®) in contact with small bowel in an experimental model in rabbits. Twenty female rabbits underwent laparotomy to implant two polypropylene meshes, 2x1cm, in the right and left flanks. The right mesh was protected with Coseal® spray (Group 1) and the left mesh received no treatment after implantation (Group 2). Thirty days after implantation, the rabbits underwent laparoscopy for adhesion analysis; the prosthesis were removed en bloc with the adjacent tissue for microscopic analysis of inflammation. Statistical analysis used the Mann-Whitney test. There was adhesion formation in five meshes (36%) from Group 1 and in 14 meshes (100%) from Group 2, with statistical significance (p<0.01). There were no differences in the inflammatory response, fibrosis, foreign body reaction, presence of collagen and type of inflammatory cells between the two groups. Polypropylene mesh coated with Coseal® showed a significantly lower rate of adhesion formation when compared with uncoated meshes, without interfering with inflammatory response.Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 12/2013; 28(12):807-14. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Inadvertent bowel injury during adhesiolysis is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality following abdominal surgery. Identification of risk factors predicting this complication would guide preoperative counselling and surgical decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify predictive preoperative factors for inadvertent bowel injury occurring during adhesiolysis.Methods All patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery between June 2008 and June 2010 were evaluated prospectively as part of the LAPAD study. Data on adhesiolysis and inadvertent organ injury were gathered by direct observation during operation. Univariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors that increased the risk of inadvertent bowel injury. Independent predictors of bowel injury were identified using multivariable logistic regression and used to create a clinical nomogram.ResultsOf 715 patients eligible for analysis, 48 (6·7 per cent) had inadvertent bowel injuries. In 42 patients the defect was detected during operation and in nine at a later time (3 patients had both). Bowel resection was required for almost two-thirds of the enterotomies. The number of previous laparotomies, anatomical site of the operation, presence of bowel fistula and laparotomy via a pre-existing median scar were independent predictors of bowel injury. A clinical scoring system was constructed using a nomogram incorporating these risk factors; this had a predictive discrimination, measured as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, of 0·85.ConclusionA nomogram based on four independent factors predicted the risk of inadvertent bowel injury. Registration number: NCT01236625 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).British Journal of Surgery 05/2014; 101(6). · 4.84 Impact Factor