Psychometric properties and osteoprotective behaviors among type 2 diabetic patients: osteoporosis self-efficacy scale Malay version (OSES-M).
ABSTRACT In type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), only 22 % have normal bone mineral density and almost three quarters of the sample population had low self-efficacy towards osteoporosis. These results reflect the need for screening and educational programs to increase the awareness of T2DM towards osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the osteoporosis self-efficacy scale (OSES-M) among T2DM and to determine the best cut-off value with optimum sensitivity and specificity. In addition, to assess factors that affects diabetic patients' osteoporosis self-efficacy. METHODS: A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate the OSES into Malay language, which was then validated with a convenience sample of 250 T2DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the OSES-M was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Bivariate and multivariate approaches were used to examine multiple independent variables on each dependent variable. RESULTS: The mean score of OSES-M was 731.74 ± 197.15. Fleiss' kappa, content validity ratio range, and content validity index were 0.99, 0.75-1, and 0.96, respectively. Two factors were extracted from exploratory factor analysis and were confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were 0.92 and 0.86, respectively. The optimum cut-off point of OSES-M to predict osteoporosis/osteopenia was 858. Regression analysis revealed that knowledge, health belief, and some demographic data had an impact on OSES-M. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the OSES-M is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring osteoporosis self-efficacy in the Malaysian clinical setting.