Eye features in three Danish patients with multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome.
ABSTRACT A de novo mutation of the ACTA2 gene encoding the smooth muscle cell α-actin has been established in patients with multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome associated with patent ductus arteriosus and mydriasis present at birth.
To describe the structural ocular findings in three Danish children with this new syndrome and evaluate the possible functional consequences for visual development of the poorer imaging condition.
Unresponsive mydriatic pupils with scalloping wisps of persistent pupillary membrane from the iris collarette were an early indicator of this rare genetic disorder in all three cases. Tortuousity of retinal arterioles was the main posterior pole finding, apparent during the first year of life and with a tendency to increase with age. In one case, it progressed to an aneurysmal-like state with breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier.
Congenital mydriasis is an extremely rare pupil anomaly and is the feature for the early diagnosis of this new syndrome. The ophthalmologist should act in close collaboration with other specialists owing to the risk of aortic and cerebrovascular diseases and other complications associated with this disorder.
- SourceAvailable from: Zhongjian Cheng[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-sensing stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins are crucial Ca(2+) signal coordinators. Cre-lox technology was used to generate smooth muscle (sm)-targeted STIM1-, STIM2-, and double STIM1/STIM2-knockout (KO) mouse models, which reveal the essential role of STIM proteins in Ca(2+) homeostasis and their crucial role in controlling function, growth, and development of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Compared to Cre(+/-) littermates, sm-STIM1-KO mice showed high mortality (50% by 30 d) and reduced bodyweight. While sm-STIM2-KO was without detectable phenotype, the STIM1/STIM double-KO was perinatally lethal, revealing an essential role of STIM1 partially rescued by STIM2. Vascular and intestinal smooth muscle tissues from sm-STIM1-KO mice developed abnormally with distended, thinned morphology. While depolarization-induced aortic contraction was unchanged in sm-STIM1-KO mice, α(1)-adrenergic-mediated contraction was 26% reduced, and store-dependent contraction almost eliminated. Neointimal formation induced by carotid artery ligation was suppressed by 54%, and in vitro PDGF-induced proliferation was greatly reduced (79%) in sm-STIM1-KO. Notably, the Ca(2+) store-refilling rate in STIM1-KO SMCs was substantially reduced, and sustained PDGF-induced Ca(2+) entry was abolished. This defective Ca(2+) homeostasis prevents PDGF-induced NFAT activation in both contractile and proliferating SMCs. We conclude that STIM1-regulated Ca(2+) homeostasis is crucial for NFAT-mediated transcriptional control required for induction of SMC proliferation, development, and growth responses to injury.-Mancarella, S., Potireddy, S., Wang, Y., Gao, H., Gandhirajan, K., Autieri, M., Scalia, R., Cheng, Z., Wang, H., Madesh, M., Houser, S. R., Gill, D. L. Targeted STIM deletion impairs calcium homeostasis, NFAT activation, and growth of smooth muscle.The FASEB Journal 11/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor