Synthesis and biological evaluation of α-methylidene-δ-lactones with 3,4-dihydrocoumarin skeleton.
ABSTRACT A series of new 3-methylidenechroman-2-ones bearing various aromatic moieties and various substituents at position 4 were synthesized in a three step reaction sequence. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of phenols or naphthols using ethyl 3-methoxy-2-diethoxyphosphorylacrylate in the presence of trifluoromethanesulphonic acid gave 3-diethoxyphosphorylchromen-2-ones. These compounds were employed as Michael acceptors in the reaction with Grignard reagents to give adducts which were finally used as Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reagents for the olefination of formaldehyde. All obtained 3-methylidenechroman-2-ones were tested against two human leukemia cell lines NALM-6 and HL-60 as well as MCF-7 breast cancer and HT-29 colon cancer adenocarcinomas. Several obtained methylidenechromanones displayed high cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values below 1 μM, mainly against leukemia and MCF-7 cell lines. Investigation of structure-activity relationships revealed that the presence of additional, ortho-fused benzene ring and n-butyl or i-propyl group in position 4 enhances the activity. Selected methylidenechromanones were also tested on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and chromanone 14o was found to be eightfold more toxic against MCF-7 than normal cells. Furthermore, antimicrobial assays revealed that chromanone 14n is highly active and bactericidal at concentration equal to MIC or 2MIC against nosocomial and community-associated staphylococci (MRSA) which are resistant to most or all available therapeutic classes of antimicrobial drugs.
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ABSTRACT: The tandem Michael addition/decarboxylation of (thio)coumarin-3-carboxylic acids with indoles has been developed and the biologically important indole-3-substituted dihydrocoumarins were obtained in good to excellent yields under catalyst-free conditions.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 03/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural products are important leads in drug discovery. The search for effective plant-derived anticancer agents or their synthetic analogues has continued to be of interest to biologists and chemists for a long time. In this report, cytotoxicity and anticancer activity of new synthetic α-methylene-δ-lactones was tested against two breast cancer cell lines, invasive, hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 and hormone-dependent MCF-7. Cytotoxicity was examined using MTT assay. The ability to induce apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential was studied by flow cytometry. The expression levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Cancer cell migration and invasion were assessed by wound healing and Matrigel assays. Additionally, secretion of proteins associated with invasiveness, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was investigated using commercial ELISA kits and MMP-9 activity by gelatin zymography. A natural sesquiterpene lactone, parthenolide, was used as a positive control. Screening results showed all four analogues to be highly cytotoxic. The most potent compound of the series, 1-isopropyl-2-methylene-1,2-dihydrobenzochromen-3-one, designated DL-3, which reduced the number of viable MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells with the IC50 values of 5.3 μM and 3.54 μM, respectively, was selected for further research. DL-3 activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. DL-3 also inhibited the movement of both types of breast cancer cells. Suppression of cell migration and invasion was the result of the decreased secretion of enzymes responsible for the degradation of the extracellular matrix, MMP-9 and uPA. These findings show that the synthetic α-methylene-δ-lactone, DL-3, displays potential to be further explored in the development of new anticancer agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 08/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor