Co-morbidity of substance use disorder and psychopathology in women who use methamphetamine during pregnancy in the US and New Zealand.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a worldwide problem. Little is known about the co-morbidity of substance use disorders (SUD) and other psychiatric disorders of mothers who use MA prenatally. The Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study is a prospective, investigation of prenatal MA use and child outcome in the United States (US) and New Zealand (NZ). This study examined prenatal MA use and the co-morbidity of SUD and psychiatric disorders at 1-month postpartum. METHOD: Mothers who used MA (US=127, NZ=97) were compared to a matched comparison group (US=193, NZ=110). The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 was used to measure the probability of a SUD. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to measure the likelihood of a positive diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: In the US and NZ, MA groups had lower SES, increased single parenting, delayed prenatal care, and increased polydrug use. In the US only, MA mothers had lower income than the comparison group. MA users were 10 times more likely to have a SUD and twice as likely to meet BSI criteria for a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In NZ, but not the US, MA users were five times more likely to have co-morbidity of both. This disparity may be due to higher quantities of prenatal alcohol use associated with increased psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that addressing both substance abuse and psychiatric disorders in mothers who use MA may be required to effectively treat maternal MA use.