Patterns of Cervical Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Follow-up Treatment in a State Medicaid Fee-for-Service Population
ABSTRACT Abstract Despite being a screening-amenable cancer, cervical cancer is the third most common genital cancer among white women and the most common among African American women. The study objective was to use administrative claims data for CC disease surveillance among recipients enrolled in a state Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS) program. West Virginia (WV) Medicaid FFS administrative claims data for female recipients aged 21-64 years from 2003 to 2008 were used for this study. All medical and prescription claims were aggregated to reflect each recipient's medical care and prescription drug utilization. The yearly prevalence of Pap smear testing declined from 23.9% in 2003 to 15.8% in 2008 in the Medicaid FFS population. During the 6-year study period, persistence with Pap smear testing was low; 41.8% of recipients received no Pap smear testing. Only 73.1% of recipients received Pap smear testing during the year prior to their CC or precancerous cervical lesions (PCL) diagnosis. The likelihood of a CC diagnosis increased with a decrease in Pap smear testing persistence. Only 10.1% of recipients received appropriate follow-up care following a diagnosis of high-grade PCL; only 31.5% of the recipients received appropriate follow-up care for low-grade PCL diagnosis. Although CC preventive services such as screening and PCL follow-up care are covered under Medicaid programs, underutilization of these services by recipients in the Medicaid FFS population is a concern. Results of this study emphasize the need to address disparities in screening and appropriate PCL follow-up care among recipients in the Medicaid FFS population. (Population Health Management 2012;15:xx-xx).
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ABSTRACT: Concern has been raised over the disproportionate cancer mortality among minority and low-income persons. The current study examined differences in disease stage at the time of diagnosis and subsequent survival for patients who are medically indigent compared with the rest of the population of cancer patients in Michigan. The authors linked three Michigan statewide data bases: the Cancer Registry, Medicaid enrollment files, and death certificates. The analysis focused on female breast, cervix, lung, prostate, and colon carcinoma, and differences were analyzed in the incidence, disease stage at the time of diagnosis, and survival between younger women and older women who were either insured or not insured by Medicaid. To estimate the risk of late stage diagnosis and death, the authors used logistic regression, controlling for age, race, and Medicaid enrollment. Ordered logit models also were used as a refinement of disease stage prediction. Medically indigent persons had a disproportionately larger share of cancer. Persons age < 65 years who were insured by Medicaid had the greatest risk of late stage diagnosis and death across all five disease sites analyzed. African-American women had a greater risk of death from breast carcinoma compared with other women independent of Medicaid status. No interaction effects were found between age, race, and/or gender and Medicaid enrollment. The results of this study showed that the disparities in cancer outcomes may be greater than previously thought and are consistent across disease sites. If advancements made in cancer control are to be shared by the low-income population, then improvements clearly are needed in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment for the poor.Cancer 01/2001; 91(1):178-88. DOI:10.1002/1097-0142(20010101)91:13.0.CO;2-S
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ABSTRACT: The inter-rater reliability, cross-source (Medicare claims versus medical record) agreement, and ability to predict all-cause mortality of three aggregate comorbidity indices were evaluated in a group of 404 elderly, incident breast cancer cases identified from the Virginia Cancer Registry and linked to Medicare administrative data files. Comorbidity was based on both medical records and Medicare claims data using indices from Charlson et al (1987), Satariano and Ragland (1994), and Kaplan and Feinstein (1974). Inter-rater agreement was good for all indices (kappas > or = 0.80). Agreement between comorbidity indices measured by claims and medical records was considerably poorer (kappas between 0.30 and 0.40). However, claims-based and medical records-based comorbidity indices were similarly associated with mortality. For the Charlson index, the index best predicting survival, the adjusted relative risk for an increase from a lower to higher comorbidity category was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.23, 1.78) based on medical records compared to 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.23, 1.93) based on Medicare claims. The claims-based Charlson index score still appeared to be associated with survival (relative risk = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.00, 1.70) after controlling for the medical records-based score. This suggests that both comorbidity data sources add valuable prognostic information and, conversely, that the use of either source alone will result in some misclassification of comorbidity.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 06/1997; 50(6):725-33. DOI:10.1016/S0895-4356(97)00050-4
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer screening and treatment data are often limited to restricted populations, including women older than 65 years old. The goal of this project was to develop procedures to link tumor registry and insurance claims databases on women younger than 65 years old with breast cancer and to assess the accuracy and validity of the linked dataset. Iowa Cancer Registry (ICR) and Wellmark Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Iowa (BC/BS) membership files of women with incident in situ or invasive breast cancer from 1989 to 1996 were linked. An automated deterministic match was followed with visual inspection from three independent reviewers applying a matching protocol. Matched and overall registry data were compared to assess population representativeness. Claims from BC/BS for incident cases during 1994 were examined for coding of a recent breast cancer diagnosis or treatment. The final dataset included 4,397 matched cases of patients aged 21 years and older from 1989 to 1996. The sociodemographic and tumor characteristics of the ICR population younger than 65 years old (n = 7,469) with breast cancer or carcinoma in situ were nearly identical with those of the matched patients younger than 65 years old (n = 3,449). Nearly all (96%) of the 445 matched incident cases in 1994 had claims data (CPT, DRG, or ICD-9 code) indicative of breast cancer. Treatment patterns varied by data source, with agreement ranging from 76% to 82%. The validity and generalizability of these data demonstrate their potential for further health services research among younger insured women with breast cancer. Additionally, the process outlined may be useful for developing other datasets to study other cancers in the population younger than 65 years old.Medical Care 12/1999; 37(11):1105-15. DOI:10.1097/00005650-199911000-00003